Enzymes
Subject(s): Sciences
ISBN 9789394681521
 Published Date
  Pages 288

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This book Enzymes presents a broad and comprehensive analysis of Enzyme Technology with a distinct emphasison Enzyme Nomenclature, Enzyme biology, Enzyme Engineering and Biosensors. Written is lucid and student-friendly approach, this book is rich in theory and practice.

Cover
Title Page
Copyright Page
Contents
Preface
1 INTRODUCTION TO ENZYMES
Introduction
Meaning and Definition
History
General Properties of Enzymes
1. Higher Reaction Rates
2. Milder Reaction Condition
3. Greater Reaction Specificity
4. Capacity for Regulations
5. Presence of Species Specificity
6. Variations in Activity and Ability
7. Substrate Specificity
8. Activation and Inhibition
Sources of Enzymes
Characteristics of Enzymes
Questions
2 ENZYME NOMENCLATURE AND CLASSIFICATION
Nomenclature
Classification
Major Classes
1. Oxidoreductases
2. Transferases
3. Hydrolases
4. Lyases
5. Isomerases
6. Ligases (Synthetases)
Key to Numbering and Classification of Enzymes
1. Oxidoreductases
2. Transferases
3. Hydrolases
4. Lyases
5. Isomerases
6. Ligases
Examples
Questions
3 ENZYME EXTRACTION AND PURIFICATION
Importance of Enzyme Purification
General Procedure
Extraction
Enzyme Histochemistry
Use of Centrifugation
Extraction of Soluble Enzymes
Extraction of Membrane-Bound Enzymes
Nature of the Extraction Medium
Purification of Enzymes
Preliminary Procedure
Fractionation Methods
Partition Chromatography
Electrophoresis
Cation Exchange Chromatography
Gel Filteration
Affinity Chromatography
HPLC Technology
Lyophilization
Determination of Molecular Weight of Enzymes
Examples of Purification Procedure
Adenylate Kinase from Pig Muscles
Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase from Spinach
RNA Polymerase from E.Coli
Arom Multi Enzyme Protein from Neurospora
Glutathione Reductase from E.Coli
Adenylate Cyclase
Chymosin
Questions
4 ENZYME ASSAY
Factors Controlling in Assays
1. Salt Concentration
2. Temperature
3. pH
4. Substrate Saturation
5. Level of Crowding
Discontinous Assay
Continous Assay
Coupled Assay
Enzyme Assay Techniques
Visible and Ultraviolet Spectrophotometer Methods
Spectrofluorimetric Method
Luminescence Method
Radioisotope Method
Questions
5 TYPES OF ENZYME
Introduction
Coenzymes
Characteristics of Coenzymes
Isoenzymes
Lactate dehydrogenase enzyme (LDH)
Monomeric Enzymes
Proteases (proteolytic enzymes)
Oligomeric Enzymes
Lactate Dehydrogenase
Lactose Synthase
Tryptophan Synthase
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase
Metalloenzymes and Metal-Activated Enzymes
Metalloenzymes
Metal Activation
Extremozymes
Abzymes
Ribozymes
Synzymes
Bi and Polyfunctional Enzyme
Questions
6 ENZYME CATALYSIS
Mechanisms in Organic Chemistry
Mechanisms of Enzyme Catalysis
Acid–Base Catalysis
Strain Distortion and Conformational Change
Catalysis by Approximation (Entrophic Contribution)
Covalent Catalysis(Nucleophilic vs Electrophilic Catalysis)
Coenzymes in Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions
Questions
7 ENZYME SPECIFICITY
Group Specificity
Absolute Specificity
Stereochemical Specificity
The Active Sites
Fischer’s Lock and Key Hypothesis
Koshland Induced Fit Hypothesis
Non-Productive Binding
Transition State Stabilization
Cryoenzymology
Questions
8 ENZYME KINETICS
Goals of Enzyme Kinetics
Chemical Kinetics
Reaction Order
Classification of Chemical Reactions by Kinetic Order
Kinetics of Bisubstrate Enzyme Reactions
The Michaelis–Menten Equation
The Lineweaver–Burk Plot
The Eadie - Hofstee and Hans Plot
Kinetics of Multisubstrate Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions
Ping-Pong Bi-Bi Mechanism
Random-Order Mechanism
Compulsory-Order Mechanism
Steady-State Kinetics
Plots For Mechanisms Which Follow the General Rate Equation
Allosteric Enzymes
Monod–Wyman Changeux (MWC) Model
MWC Model and Allosteric Regulation
Questions
9 ENZYME INHIBITION
Reversible Inhibition
Competitive Inhibition
Uncompetitive Inhibition
Non-competitive Inhibition and Mixed Inhibition
Partial Inhibition
Substrate Inhibition
Allosteric Inhibiton
Irreversible Inhibition
Questions
10 ENZYME COFACTORS
Mode of Action
Cofactors Acting as Carriers
Redox Carriers
Phosphate Carriers
CO2 Carrier
Amino Group Carriers
Acyl Group Carriers
Carrier of One Carbon Group
Sulphate Carrier
Aldehyde Carrier
Questions
11 ENZYME BIOLOGY
Introduction
Intracelluar Localization of Enzymes
Histochemical Methods
Separation of Particulate Fraction
Questions
12 ENZYME ENGINEERING
Definition
Objectives
Principle of Enzyme Engineering
Procedure in Enzyme Engineering
Example
Protein Engineering
Addition of Disulphide Bond
Changing Asparagine to other Aminoacids
Reduction of Number of Free Sulphydryl Residues
Increase of Enzymatic Activity
Modification of Enzyme Specificity
Secretion of Cloned Proteins
Large Scale Fermentation
Principles of Microbial Growth
Bioreactors
Harvesting of Microbial Cells
Disruption of Microbial Cells
Downstream Processing
Questions
13 IMMOBILIZATION OF ENZYME
Advantages
Methods of Enzyme Immobilization
Adsorption
Covalent Bonding
Entrapment
Crosslinking
Encapsulation
Applications of Immobilized Enzyme
Immobilized Enzyme Kinetics
Heterogenous Concentrations
Concentration Gradients and Reaction Rates in Solid Catalyst
Effect of External Mass Transfer Resistance
Diffusion Effects in Surface-Bound Enzymes on Non-Porous Support Materials
Design of Immobilized Enzyme Reactors
Batch Reactors
Continuous Flow Reactors
Packed Bed Reactor
Fluidized-Bed Reactors
Membrane Reactors
Questions
14 BIOSENSORS
Principle
General Features
Glucose Electrode
Types of Biosensors
Calorimetric Biosensors
Amperometric Biosensors
Optical Biosensors
Acoustic Wave Biosensor
Potentiometric Biosensors
Whole Cell Biosensors (Microbial Biosensors)
Applications of Biosensors
Questions
15 CLINICAL ENZYMOLOGY
Amylase
Clinical Significance
Transaminases
Clinical Significance
Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP)
Clinical Significance
Acid Phosphatase (ACP)
Clinical Significance
Lactate Dehydrogenase (LD)
Clinical Significance
Creatine Kinase (CK)
Clinical Significance
Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase (GGT)
Clinical Significance
Cholinesterases
Clinical Significance
Questions
16 APPLICATIONS IN ENZYMES
Applications in Medicine
Assay of Plasma Enzymes
Therapeutic Uses
Application In Industry
In Food Industry
Baking of Bread
Enzymes and Recombinant DNA Technology
In Dairy Industry
Cheese Making
In Starch Industry
In Detergent Industry
In Leather Industry
Wool Industry
Production Syrups
In Sugar Industry
In Brewing Industry
Biotechnological Applications of Enzymes
Analytical Uses
Principles of Enzymatic Analysis
Questions

Dr. Devika R is Assistant Professor at NSS Training College, Ottapalam, Palghat. Her areas of specialisation include Mathematics, Education, ICT. She completed her Masters in Science from University of Kerala and completed her Masters in Education from Manonmaniam Sundaranar University and her doctorate from University of Kerala in 2011. She has over 12 years of teaching experience and has published more than 15 research papers in nationally reputed journals and contributed 2 articles in edited books.

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