Hydraulics and Pneumatic Controls 3e
Hydraulics and Pneumatic Controls 3e
ISBN 9789394524514
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This textbook provides a strong foundation to the basic principles, concepts and applications of fluid power. Concise and student-friendly, this book adopts a step-by-step approach, lays emphasis on concepts, and instills learning of design and system applications of hydraulic and pneumatic controls.

  • Cover
  • Title Page
  • Copyright Page
  • Dedication
  • Contents
  • Preface
  • CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
    • 1.1 What is Fluid Power
    • 1.2 History of Fluid Power
    • 1.3 Basic Law
    • 1.4 Applications of Fluid Power
    • 1.5 Advantages of Fluid Power Systems
    • 1.6 Comparison of Hydraulic, Pneumatic and Electrical Systems
    • 1.7 Types of Fluid Power System
      • 1.7.1 Based on Control System
      • 1.7.2 Based on the Type of Control
    • 1.8 Fluid Power Industry in India
    • Solved Problems
    • Exercise
    • Review Questions
  • CHAPTER 2 HYDRAULIC FLUIDS AND PROPERTIES
    • 2.1 Fluids: Liquids and Gases
    • 2.2 Various Hydraulic Fluids
      • 2.2.1 Water
      • 2.2.2 Petroleum Oils
      • 2.2.3 Water Glycols
      • 2.2.4 Water-in-Oil Emulsion
      • 2.2.5 Oil-in-Water Emulsion
      • 2.2.6 Phosphate Esters
      • 2.2.7 Silicones
    • 2.3 Properties of Fluids
      • 2.3.1 Viscosity
      • 2.3.2 Viscosity Index
      • 2.3.3 Oxidation Stability
      • 2.3.4 Demulsibility
      • 2.3.5 Lubricity
      • 2.3.6 Rust Prevention
      • 2.3.7 Pour Point
      • 2.3.8 Flash Point and Fire Point
      • 2.3.9 Neutralisation Number
    • 2.4 Comparison of Properties
    • Solved Problems
    • Review Questions
  • CHAPTER 3 BASIC PRINCIPLES OF HYDRAULIC FLOW
    • 3.1 Laminar and Turbulent Flow
    • 3.2 Reynolds Number
    • 3.3 Darcy–Weisbach Equation
    • 3.4 Losses in Valves and Fittings
    • 3.5 Circuit Calculations
    • Solved Problems
    • Exercise
    • Review Questions
  • CHAPTER 4 PUMPS
    • 4.1 Basic Elements of an Oil Hydraulic System
      • 4.1.1 Hydraulic Pump Unit
      • 4.1.2 Control Valves
      • 4.1.3 Hydraulic Motor (or) Cylinder
    • 4.2 Pumps
    • 4.3 Hydrodynamic or Non-Positive Displacement Pumps
    • 4.4 Hydrostatic or Positive Displacement Pumps
      • 4.4.1 Classification of Positive Displacement Pumps
    • 4.5 Gear Pumps
      • 4.5.1 External Gear Pumps
      • 4.5.2 Internal Gear Pumps
      • 4.5.3 Lobe Pumps
      • 4.5.4 Gerotor Pump
      • 4.5.5 Screw Pumps
    • 4.6 Vane Pumps
      • 4.6.1 Unbalanced Vane Pump
      • 4.6.2 Pressure Compensated Variable Delivery Pump
      • 4.6.3 Balanced Vane Pump
    • 4.7 Piston Pumps
      • 4.7.1 Bent Axis Type Piston Pump
      • 4.7.2 Swash Plate Type Piston Pump
      • 4.7.3 Radial Piston Pump
    • 4.8 Pump Performance
      • 4.8.1 Volumetric Efficiency
      • 4.8.2 Mechanical Efficiency
      • 4.8.3 Overall Efficiency
    • Solved Problems
    • Exercise
    • Review Questions
  • CHAPTER 5 HYDRAULIC ACTUATORS
    • 5.1 Hydraulic Motors
      • 5.1.1 Gear Type Motors
      • 5.1.2 Vane Type Motors
      • 5.1.3 Piston Type Motors
      • 5.1.4 Hydraulic Motor Efficiencies
    • 5.2 Semi-Rotary Actuators
      • 5.2.1 Vane Type Actuators
      • 5.2.2 Piston Type Semi-Rotary Actuator
      • 5.2.3 Helical Screw Semi-Rotary Actuator
    • 5.3 Hydraulic Cylinders
      • 5.3.1 Single Acting Cylinders
      • 5.3.2 Double Acting Cylinders
      • 5.3.3 Special Type Cylinders
      • 5.3.4 Mounting Configurations
      • 5.3.5 Methods of Applying Linear Motion
    • Solved Problems
    • Exercise
    • Review Questions
  • CHAPTER 6 HYDRAULIC VALVES
    • 6.1 Pressure Controls
      • 6.1.1 Pressure Relief (Spring Loaded Type) Valve
      • 6.1.2 Compound Relief Valve
    • 6.2 Direction Control Valves
      • 6.2.1 Classification of Direction Control Valves
      • 6.2.2 Two Way Valves
      • 6.2.3 Actuating Devices
      • 6.2.4 Rotary Spool Valves
    • 6.3 Unloading Valve
    • 6.4 Sequence Valve
    • 6.5 Counterbalance Valve
    • 6.6 Brake Valve
    • 6.7 Pressure Reducing Valve
    • 6.8 Flow Control Valve
      • 6.8.1 Non-Pressure CompensatedFlow Control Valve
      • 6.8.2 Pressure CompensatedFlow Control Valve
      • 6.8.3 Location of Flow Control Valves
    • 6.9 Flow Dividers
      • 6.9.1 Valve Type
      • 6.9.2 Motor Type
    • 6.10 Deceleration Valve
    • 6.11 Modular Valves
    • 6.12 Cartridge Valves
      • 6.12.1 Cartridge Insert Valves
      • 6.12.2 Cartridge Logic Valves
      • Solved Problems
    • Exercise
    • Review Questions
  • CHAPTER 7 SEALS AND FILTERS
    • 7.1 Seals
      • 7.1.1 Static Seals
      • 7.1.2 Dynamic Seals
      • 7.1.3 Materials for Seals
      • 7.1.4 Conditions Affecting theSelection of Sealing Devices
    • 7.2 Fluid Contamination
      • 7.2.1 Cleanliness Standards
    • 7.3 Filtration of Fluids
      • 7.3.1 Strainers
      • 7.3.2 Filters
      • 7.3.3 Filter Media
      • 7.3.4 Types of Filters
      • 7.3.5 Filter Location
    • Solved Problem
    • Review Questions
  • CHAPTER 8 ACCUMULATORS
    • 8.1 Weight Loaded Type Accumulator
    • 8.2 Spring Loaded Accumulator
    • 8.3 Gas Loaded Type Accumulator
      • 8.3.1 Non-separator Type
      • 8.3.2 Separator Type
      • 8.3.3 Gas Loaded Accumulator Operation
      • 8.3.4 Bellows Type Accumulator
    • 8.4 Accumulator Circuits
      • 8.4.1 Leakage Compensation
      • 8.4.2 Auxiliary Power Source
      • 8.4.3 Emergency Source of Power
      • 8.4.4 Shock Suppressor
      • 8.4.5 Thermal Expansion Compensator
    • 8.5 Sizing of Accumulator
    • Solved Problems
    • Exercise
    • Review Questions
  • CHAPTER 9 SERVO VALVES AND PROPORTIONAL VALVES
    • 9.1 Mechanical Hydraulic Servo Valve
    • 9.2 Electro Hydraulic Servo Valves
      • 9.2.1 Single Stage Servo Valves
      • 9.2.2 Two Stage Servo Valves
      • 9.2.3 Flapper Type Servo Valve
      • 9.2.4 Jet Pipe Servo Valve
      • 9.2.5 Speed Control Circuit with a Servo Valve
    • 9.3 Proportional Valves
      • 9.3.1 Control of Proportional Valves
      • 9.3.2 Spool Position Control
    • 9.4 Proportional Pressure Relief Valves
    • 9.5 Proportional Pressure Reducing Valve
    • 9.6 Proportional Direction Control Valve
      • 9.6.1 Speed Control Circuit with a Proportional Valve
    • 9.7 Comparison of Proportional and Servo Valves
    • Review Questions
  • CHAPTER 10 INDUSTRIAL HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS
    • 10.1 Intensifier Circuit
      • 10.1.1 Intensifier Press Circuit
    • 10.2 Regenerative Circuit
      • 10.2.1 Drilling Machine Application
    • 10.3 Synchronising Circuits
    • 10.4 Automatic Cylinder Reciprocation Circuit
    • 10.5 Multiple Circuitry using Banked Units
    • 10.6 Sequencing Circuits
      • 10.6.1 Sequence Operation using Sequencing Valve
      • 10.6.2 Sequence Operation by use of Cam Valve
    • 10.7 Circuits for Operations of Machine Tools
      • 10.7.1 Hydraulic Operation of a Planning Machine
      • 10.7.2 Hydraulic Operation of a Vertical Milling Machine
      • 10.7.3 Hydraulic Operation of a Surface Grinding Machine
      • 10.7.4 Hydraulic Operation of a Press
    • 10.8 Safety Circuits
      • 10.8.1 Two-hand Safety Control Circuit
      • 10.8.2 Fail-safe Control Circuit Using Emergency Cut-off Valve
    • 10.9 Hydraulic Circuit for a Robot Arm
    • 10.10 Hydrostatic Transmission
      • 10.10.1 Open Circuit Transmission
      • 10.10.2 Closed Circuit Transmission
      • 10.10.3 Applications
    • 10.11 Power Pack
    • Solved Problems
    • Exercise
    • Review Questions
  • CHAPTER 11 DESIGN OF HYDRAULIC CIRCUITS
    • 11.1 Design Informations Required
    • 11.2 Selection of a Hydraulic Cylinder
      • 11.2.1 Preferred Sizes
      • 11.2.2 Piston Rod Buckling
    • 11.3 Selection of Hydraulic Motors
      • 11.3.1 Hydrostatic Drives
      • 11.3.2 Hydrostatic Drive Characteristics
      • 11.3.3 Braking of Hydrostatic Drives
      • 11.3.4 Hydraulic Motor Characteristics and Performance Curves
      • 11.3.5 Matching Motor to Load
    • 11.4 Selection of Control Valves
      • 11.4.1 Selection of Relief Valves
      • 11.4.2 Selection of Flow Control Valve
      • 11.4.3 Selection of DirectionControl Valve
    • 11.5 Selection of Filters
    • 11.6 Selection of Hydraulic Conduits
      • 11.6.1 Tubing
      • 11.6.2 Hoses
    • 11.7 Pressure Losses
      • 11.7.1 Pressure Drop in Pipelines
      • 11.7.2 Pressure Losses in Valves and Filters
    • 11.8 Selection of Pump
    • 11.9 Reservoir
      • 11.9.1 Functions of a Fluid Reservoir
      • 11.9.2 Reservoir Design
    • 11.10 Sizing of Accumulator
    • Solved Problems
    • Exercise
    • Review Questions
  • CHAPTER 12 PNEUMATICS
    • 12.1 Comparison of Pneumatic System with Hydraulic System
    • 12.2 Properties of Air
    • 12.3 Basic Pneumatic System
    • 12.4 Compressors
      • 12.4.1 Piston Compressors
      • 12.4.2 Vane Compressors
      • 12.4.3 Screw Compressors
    • 12.5 Primary Air Treatment
    • 12.6 Receiver
    • 12.7 Air Filter
    • 12.8 Pressure Regulator
    • 12.9 Lubricator
    • 12.10 Pneumatic Valves
      • 12.10.1 Direction Control Valves
      • 12.10.2 Pneumatic Check Valve
      • 12.10.3 Flow Control Valve
      • 12.10.4 Pneumatic Shuttle Valve or ‘OR’ Type Valve
      • 12.10.5 ‘AND’ Type or Two-Pressure Valve
      • 12.10.6 Quick Exhaust Valve
      • 12.10.7 Time Delay Valve
    • 12.11 Pneumatic Actuators
      • 12.11.1 Pneumatic Cylinders
      • 12.11.2 Air Motors
      • 12.11.3 Vacuum Suction Cups
    • 12.12 Mufflers
    • 12.13 Pneumatic Circuits
      • 12.13.1 Basic Pneumatic Circuit
      • 12.13.2 Speed Control Circuit
      • 12.13.3 Quick Exhaust Circuit
      • 12.13.4 Two Step Feed Control Circuit
      • 12.13.5 Time Delay Circuit
      • 12.13.6 Automatic Cylinder Reciprocation Circuit
      • 12.13.7 Two Hand Safety Control Circuit
    • 12.14 Selection of Pneumatic Components
      • 12.14.1 Selection of Pneumatic Cylinders
      • 12.14.2 Selection of Air Motors
      • 12.14.3 Sizing of Control Valves
      • 12.14.4 Pressure Losses in Pipes
      • 12.14.5 Selection of Filter, Regulator, Lubricator
      • 12.14.6 Sizing of Compressors
      • Solved Problems
      • Exercise
      • Review Questions
  • CHAPTER 13 HYDROPNEUMATICS
    • 13.1 Air-Oil Reservoir
    • 13.2 Air-Oil Cylinder
    • 13.3 Air-Oil Intensifier
    • 13.4 Comparison of Hydropneumatic, Hydraulic and Pneumatic System
    • Review Questions
  • CHAPTER 14 PNEUMATIC LOGIC CONTROLS
    • 14.1 Pneumatic Sensors
    • 14.2 Position Sensors
      • 14.2.1 Pneumatic Limit Valves
      • 14.2.2 Back Pressure Sensor
      • 14.2.3 Proximity Sensor
      • 14.2.4 Gap Sensor or Interruptible Jet Sensor
      • 14.2.5 Limit Switch
      • 14.2.6 Comparison between the Different Position Sensors
    • 14.3 Pressure Sensors
    • 14.4 Switching Elements
      • 14.4.1 Miniature Control Valves
      • 14.4.2 Moving-Part Logic Elements
      • 14.4.3 Fluidic Element
      • 14.4.4 Comparison between the Different Switching Elements
    • Review Questions
  • CHAPTER 15 DESIGN OF PNEUMATIC LOGIC CIRCUITS
    • 15.1 Classic Method
    • 15.2 Cascade Method
    • 15.3 Step-counter Method
    • 15.4 Logic Circuit Design with Karnaugh-Veitch Mapping Method
    • 15.5 Combinational Circuit Design
    • Solved Problems
    • Exercise
    • Review Questions
  • CHAPTER 16 ELECTRICAL CONTROL OF FLUID POWER
    • 16.1 Components of Electrical Controls
      • 16.1.1 Switches
      • 16.1.2 Solenoids
      • 16.1.3 Relays
      • 16.1.4 Timers
    • 16.2 Electro-Hydraulic / Pneumatic Circuits
      • 16.2.1 Reciprocation of a CylinderUsing Pressure Switches
      • 16.2.2 Control of a Cylinder Using a Single Limit Switch
      • 16.2.3 Dual Cylinder Sequencing Circuit
      • 16.2.4 Regenerative Circuit
    • 16.3 Cascade Method for Electropneumatic Circuits
    • Review Questions
  • CHAPTER 17 MICROELECTRONIC CONTROL OF FLUID POWER
    • 17.1 PLC Construction
      • 17.1.1 Central Processing Unit
      • 17.1.2 Memory
      • 17.1.3 I/O Module
    • 17.2 Programming the PLC
      • 17.2.1 Ladder Diagram Based
      • 17.2.2 Low-level Language Based on Boolean Functions
      • 17.2.3 Functional Blocks
      • 17.2.4 High-level Languages
    • 17.3 PLC Operation
    • 17.4 Microprocessor Construction
      • 17.4.1 Microprocessor
      • 17.4.2 Memory
      • 17.4.3 Input/Output
      • 17.4.4 DC Power Supplies
      • 17.4.5 Bus
      • 17.4.6 Interfacing
    • 17.5 Programming the Microprocessor
      • 17.5.1 Low-level Language Programming
      • 17.5.2 High-level Language Programming
    • 17.6 Microprocessor Operation
    • 17.7 Difference between PLCs and Microcomputers
    • Exercise
    • Review Questions
  • CHAPTER 18 INSTALLATION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLESHOOTING OF FLUID POWER SYSTEMS
    • 18.1 Installation of Hydraulic Systems
      • 18.1.1 Installation of Pumps
      • 18.1.2 Installation of Cylinders
      • 18.1.3 Installation of Valves
      • 18.1.4 Installation of Tubing
      • 18.1.5 Power Pack Installation
      • 18.1.6 Filling the System
    • 18.2 Maintenance of Hydraulic Systems
      • 18.2.1 Maintenance Schedule
    • 18.3 Troubleshooting of Hydraulic System
      • 18.3.1 Fault Finding Procedure
    • 18.4 Trouble — Possible Causes and Remedies
      • 18.4.1 Pumps
      • 18.4.2 Relief Valves
      • 18.4.3 Directional Valves
      • 18.4.4 Sequence Valves
      • 18.4.5 Unloading Valves
      • 18.4.6 Counterbalance Valves
      • 18.4.7 Flow Control Valves
      • 18.4.8 Remote Flow Control Valves
      • 18.4.9 Hydraulic Motors
      • 18.4.10 Hydraulic Cylinders
      • 18.4.11 Accumulators
      • 18.4.12 General Circuit Problems
    • 18.5 Installation of Pneumatic Systems
      • 18.5.1 Installation of FRL Unit
      • 18.5.2 Installation of Pneumatic Cylinder
      • 18.5.3 Installation of Pipelines
      • 18.5.4 Installation of Compressor
    • 18.6 Maintenance of Pneumatic System
      • 18.6.1 Maintenance Schedule
    • 18.7 Troubleshooting of Pneumatic Systems
    • 18.8 Trouble — Possible Causes and Remedies
      • 18.8.1 Compressor
      • 18.8.2 FRL Unit
      • 18.8.3 Air Cylinders and Air Motors
      • 18.8.4 Valves
      • 18.8.5 Pipe Lines and Hoses
    • Review Questions
  • CHAPTER 19 LOW – COST AUTOMATION
    • 19.1 Concepts of Low-cost Automation
    • 19.2 Technologies Used for LCA
    • 19.3 Applications
  • Appendices
    • Two-mark Questions and Answers
  • References
  • Index
Professor and Head Department of Mechanical Engineering Rvs College of Engineering Dindigul
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Description

This textbook provides a strong foundation to the basic principles, concepts and applications of fluid power. Concise and student-friendly, this book adopts a step-by-step approach, lays emphasis on concepts, and instills learning of design and system applications of hydraulic and pneumatic controls.

Table of contents
  • Cover
  • Title Page
  • Copyright Page
  • Dedication
  • Contents
  • Preface
  • CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
    • 1.1 What is Fluid Power
    • 1.2 History of Fluid Power
    • 1.3 Basic Law
    • 1.4 Applications of Fluid Power
    • 1.5 Advantages of Fluid Power Systems
    • 1.6 Comparison of Hydraulic, Pneumatic and Electrical Systems
    • 1.7 Types of Fluid Power System
      • 1.7.1 Based on Control System
      • 1.7.2 Based on the Type of Control
    • 1.8 Fluid Power Industry in India
    • Solved Problems
    • Exercise
    • Review Questions
  • CHAPTER 2 HYDRAULIC FLUIDS AND PROPERTIES
    • 2.1 Fluids: Liquids and Gases
    • 2.2 Various Hydraulic Fluids
      • 2.2.1 Water
      • 2.2.2 Petroleum Oils
      • 2.2.3 Water Glycols
      • 2.2.4 Water-in-Oil Emulsion
      • 2.2.5 Oil-in-Water Emulsion
      • 2.2.6 Phosphate Esters
      • 2.2.7 Silicones
    • 2.3 Properties of Fluids
      • 2.3.1 Viscosity
      • 2.3.2 Viscosity Index
      • 2.3.3 Oxidation Stability
      • 2.3.4 Demulsibility
      • 2.3.5 Lubricity
      • 2.3.6 Rust Prevention
      • 2.3.7 Pour Point
      • 2.3.8 Flash Point and Fire Point
      • 2.3.9 Neutralisation Number
    • 2.4 Comparison of Properties
    • Solved Problems
    • Review Questions
  • CHAPTER 3 BASIC PRINCIPLES OF HYDRAULIC FLOW
    • 3.1 Laminar and Turbulent Flow
    • 3.2 Reynolds Number
    • 3.3 Darcy–Weisbach Equation
    • 3.4 Losses in Valves and Fittings
    • 3.5 Circuit Calculations
    • Solved Problems
    • Exercise
    • Review Questions
  • CHAPTER 4 PUMPS
    • 4.1 Basic Elements of an Oil Hydraulic System
      • 4.1.1 Hydraulic Pump Unit
      • 4.1.2 Control Valves
      • 4.1.3 Hydraulic Motor (or) Cylinder
    • 4.2 Pumps
    • 4.3 Hydrodynamic or Non-Positive Displacement Pumps
    • 4.4 Hydrostatic or Positive Displacement Pumps
      • 4.4.1 Classification of Positive Displacement Pumps
    • 4.5 Gear Pumps
      • 4.5.1 External Gear Pumps
      • 4.5.2 Internal Gear Pumps
      • 4.5.3 Lobe Pumps
      • 4.5.4 Gerotor Pump
      • 4.5.5 Screw Pumps
    • 4.6 Vane Pumps
      • 4.6.1 Unbalanced Vane Pump
      • 4.6.2 Pressure Compensated Variable Delivery Pump
      • 4.6.3 Balanced Vane Pump
    • 4.7 Piston Pumps
      • 4.7.1 Bent Axis Type Piston Pump
      • 4.7.2 Swash Plate Type Piston Pump
      • 4.7.3 Radial Piston Pump
    • 4.8 Pump Performance
      • 4.8.1 Volumetric Efficiency
      • 4.8.2 Mechanical Efficiency
      • 4.8.3 Overall Efficiency
    • Solved Problems
    • Exercise
    • Review Questions
  • CHAPTER 5 HYDRAULIC ACTUATORS
    • 5.1 Hydraulic Motors
      • 5.1.1 Gear Type Motors
      • 5.1.2 Vane Type Motors
      • 5.1.3 Piston Type Motors
      • 5.1.4 Hydraulic Motor Efficiencies
    • 5.2 Semi-Rotary Actuators
      • 5.2.1 Vane Type Actuators
      • 5.2.2 Piston Type Semi-Rotary Actuator
      • 5.2.3 Helical Screw Semi-Rotary Actuator
    • 5.3 Hydraulic Cylinders
      • 5.3.1 Single Acting Cylinders
      • 5.3.2 Double Acting Cylinders
      • 5.3.3 Special Type Cylinders
      • 5.3.4 Mounting Configurations
      • 5.3.5 Methods of Applying Linear Motion
    • Solved Problems
    • Exercise
    • Review Questions
  • CHAPTER 6 HYDRAULIC VALVES
    • 6.1 Pressure Controls
      • 6.1.1 Pressure Relief (Spring Loaded Type) Valve
      • 6.1.2 Compound Relief Valve
    • 6.2 Direction Control Valves
      • 6.2.1 Classification of Direction Control Valves
      • 6.2.2 Two Way Valves
      • 6.2.3 Actuating Devices
      • 6.2.4 Rotary Spool Valves
    • 6.3 Unloading Valve
    • 6.4 Sequence Valve
    • 6.5 Counterbalance Valve
    • 6.6 Brake Valve
    • 6.7 Pressure Reducing Valve
    • 6.8 Flow Control Valve
      • 6.8.1 Non-Pressure CompensatedFlow Control Valve
      • 6.8.2 Pressure CompensatedFlow Control Valve
      • 6.8.3 Location of Flow Control Valves
    • 6.9 Flow Dividers
      • 6.9.1 Valve Type
      • 6.9.2 Motor Type
    • 6.10 Deceleration Valve
    • 6.11 Modular Valves
    • 6.12 Cartridge Valves
      • 6.12.1 Cartridge Insert Valves
      • 6.12.2 Cartridge Logic Valves
      • Solved Problems
    • Exercise
    • Review Questions
  • CHAPTER 7 SEALS AND FILTERS
    • 7.1 Seals
      • 7.1.1 Static Seals
      • 7.1.2 Dynamic Seals
      • 7.1.3 Materials for Seals
      • 7.1.4 Conditions Affecting theSelection of Sealing Devices
    • 7.2 Fluid Contamination
      • 7.2.1 Cleanliness Standards
    • 7.3 Filtration of Fluids
      • 7.3.1 Strainers
      • 7.3.2 Filters
      • 7.3.3 Filter Media
      • 7.3.4 Types of Filters
      • 7.3.5 Filter Location
    • Solved Problem
    • Review Questions
  • CHAPTER 8 ACCUMULATORS
    • 8.1 Weight Loaded Type Accumulator
    • 8.2 Spring Loaded Accumulator
    • 8.3 Gas Loaded Type Accumulator
      • 8.3.1 Non-separator Type
      • 8.3.2 Separator Type
      • 8.3.3 Gas Loaded Accumulator Operation
      • 8.3.4 Bellows Type Accumulator
    • 8.4 Accumulator Circuits
      • 8.4.1 Leakage Compensation
      • 8.4.2 Auxiliary Power Source
      • 8.4.3 Emergency Source of Power
      • 8.4.4 Shock Suppressor
      • 8.4.5 Thermal Expansion Compensator
    • 8.5 Sizing of Accumulator
    • Solved Problems
    • Exercise
    • Review Questions
  • CHAPTER 9 SERVO VALVES AND PROPORTIONAL VALVES
    • 9.1 Mechanical Hydraulic Servo Valve
    • 9.2 Electro Hydraulic Servo Valves
      • 9.2.1 Single Stage Servo Valves
      • 9.2.2 Two Stage Servo Valves
      • 9.2.3 Flapper Type Servo Valve
      • 9.2.4 Jet Pipe Servo Valve
      • 9.2.5 Speed Control Circuit with a Servo Valve
    • 9.3 Proportional Valves
      • 9.3.1 Control of Proportional Valves
      • 9.3.2 Spool Position Control
    • 9.4 Proportional Pressure Relief Valves
    • 9.5 Proportional Pressure Reducing Valve
    • 9.6 Proportional Direction Control Valve
      • 9.6.1 Speed Control Circuit with a Proportional Valve
    • 9.7 Comparison of Proportional and Servo Valves
    • Review Questions
  • CHAPTER 10 INDUSTRIAL HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS
    • 10.1 Intensifier Circuit
      • 10.1.1 Intensifier Press Circuit
    • 10.2 Regenerative Circuit
      • 10.2.1 Drilling Machine Application
    • 10.3 Synchronising Circuits
    • 10.4 Automatic Cylinder Reciprocation Circuit
    • 10.5 Multiple Circuitry using Banked Units
    • 10.6 Sequencing Circuits
      • 10.6.1 Sequence Operation using Sequencing Valve
      • 10.6.2 Sequence Operation by use of Cam Valve
    • 10.7 Circuits for Operations of Machine Tools
      • 10.7.1 Hydraulic Operation of a Planning Machine
      • 10.7.2 Hydraulic Operation of a Vertical Milling Machine
      • 10.7.3 Hydraulic Operation of a Surface Grinding Machine
      • 10.7.4 Hydraulic Operation of a Press
    • 10.8 Safety Circuits
      • 10.8.1 Two-hand Safety Control Circuit
      • 10.8.2 Fail-safe Control Circuit Using Emergency Cut-off Valve
    • 10.9 Hydraulic Circuit for a Robot Arm
    • 10.10 Hydrostatic Transmission
      • 10.10.1 Open Circuit Transmission
      • 10.10.2 Closed Circuit Transmission
      • 10.10.3 Applications
    • 10.11 Power Pack
    • Solved Problems
    • Exercise
    • Review Questions
  • CHAPTER 11 DESIGN OF HYDRAULIC CIRCUITS
    • 11.1 Design Informations Required
    • 11.2 Selection of a Hydraulic Cylinder
      • 11.2.1 Preferred Sizes
      • 11.2.2 Piston Rod Buckling
    • 11.3 Selection of Hydraulic Motors
      • 11.3.1 Hydrostatic Drives
      • 11.3.2 Hydrostatic Drive Characteristics
      • 11.3.3 Braking of Hydrostatic Drives
      • 11.3.4 Hydraulic Motor Characteristics and Performance Curves
      • 11.3.5 Matching Motor to Load
    • 11.4 Selection of Control Valves
      • 11.4.1 Selection of Relief Valves
      • 11.4.2 Selection of Flow Control Valve
      • 11.4.3 Selection of DirectionControl Valve
    • 11.5 Selection of Filters
    • 11.6 Selection of Hydraulic Conduits
      • 11.6.1 Tubing
      • 11.6.2 Hoses
    • 11.7 Pressure Losses
      • 11.7.1 Pressure Drop in Pipelines
      • 11.7.2 Pressure Losses in Valves and Filters
    • 11.8 Selection of Pump
    • 11.9 Reservoir
      • 11.9.1 Functions of a Fluid Reservoir
      • 11.9.2 Reservoir Design
    • 11.10 Sizing of Accumulator
    • Solved Problems
    • Exercise
    • Review Questions
  • CHAPTER 12 PNEUMATICS
    • 12.1 Comparison of Pneumatic System with Hydraulic System
    • 12.2 Properties of Air
    • 12.3 Basic Pneumatic System
    • 12.4 Compressors
      • 12.4.1 Piston Compressors
      • 12.4.2 Vane Compressors
      • 12.4.3 Screw Compressors
    • 12.5 Primary Air Treatment
    • 12.6 Receiver
    • 12.7 Air Filter
    • 12.8 Pressure Regulator
    • 12.9 Lubricator
    • 12.10 Pneumatic Valves
      • 12.10.1 Direction Control Valves
      • 12.10.2 Pneumatic Check Valve
      • 12.10.3 Flow Control Valve
      • 12.10.4 Pneumatic Shuttle Valve or ‘OR’ Type Valve
      • 12.10.5 ‘AND’ Type or Two-Pressure Valve
      • 12.10.6 Quick Exhaust Valve
      • 12.10.7 Time Delay Valve
    • 12.11 Pneumatic Actuators
      • 12.11.1 Pneumatic Cylinders
      • 12.11.2 Air Motors
      • 12.11.3 Vacuum Suction Cups
    • 12.12 Mufflers
    • 12.13 Pneumatic Circuits
      • 12.13.1 Basic Pneumatic Circuit
      • 12.13.2 Speed Control Circuit
      • 12.13.3 Quick Exhaust Circuit
      • 12.13.4 Two Step Feed Control Circuit
      • 12.13.5 Time Delay Circuit
      • 12.13.6 Automatic Cylinder Reciprocation Circuit
      • 12.13.7 Two Hand Safety Control Circuit
    • 12.14 Selection of Pneumatic Components
      • 12.14.1 Selection of Pneumatic Cylinders
      • 12.14.2 Selection of Air Motors
      • 12.14.3 Sizing of Control Valves
      • 12.14.4 Pressure Losses in Pipes
      • 12.14.5 Selection of Filter, Regulator, Lubricator
      • 12.14.6 Sizing of Compressors
      • Solved Problems
      • Exercise
      • Review Questions
  • CHAPTER 13 HYDROPNEUMATICS
    • 13.1 Air-Oil Reservoir
    • 13.2 Air-Oil Cylinder
    • 13.3 Air-Oil Intensifier
    • 13.4 Comparison of Hydropneumatic, Hydraulic and Pneumatic System
    • Review Questions
  • CHAPTER 14 PNEUMATIC LOGIC CONTROLS
    • 14.1 Pneumatic Sensors
    • 14.2 Position Sensors
      • 14.2.1 Pneumatic Limit Valves
      • 14.2.2 Back Pressure Sensor
      • 14.2.3 Proximity Sensor
      • 14.2.4 Gap Sensor or Interruptible Jet Sensor
      • 14.2.5 Limit Switch
      • 14.2.6 Comparison between the Different Position Sensors
    • 14.3 Pressure Sensors
    • 14.4 Switching Elements
      • 14.4.1 Miniature Control Valves
      • 14.4.2 Moving-Part Logic Elements
      • 14.4.3 Fluidic Element
      • 14.4.4 Comparison between the Different Switching Elements
    • Review Questions
  • CHAPTER 15 DESIGN OF PNEUMATIC LOGIC CIRCUITS
    • 15.1 Classic Method
    • 15.2 Cascade Method
    • 15.3 Step-counter Method
    • 15.4 Logic Circuit Design with Karnaugh-Veitch Mapping Method
    • 15.5 Combinational Circuit Design
    • Solved Problems
    • Exercise
    • Review Questions
  • CHAPTER 16 ELECTRICAL CONTROL OF FLUID POWER
    • 16.1 Components of Electrical Controls
      • 16.1.1 Switches
      • 16.1.2 Solenoids
      • 16.1.3 Relays
      • 16.1.4 Timers
    • 16.2 Electro-Hydraulic / Pneumatic Circuits
      • 16.2.1 Reciprocation of a CylinderUsing Pressure Switches
      • 16.2.2 Control of a Cylinder Using a Single Limit Switch
      • 16.2.3 Dual Cylinder Sequencing Circuit
      • 16.2.4 Regenerative Circuit
    • 16.3 Cascade Method for Electropneumatic Circuits
    • Review Questions
  • CHAPTER 17 MICROELECTRONIC CONTROL OF FLUID POWER
    • 17.1 PLC Construction
      • 17.1.1 Central Processing Unit
      • 17.1.2 Memory
      • 17.1.3 I/O Module
    • 17.2 Programming the PLC
      • 17.2.1 Ladder Diagram Based
      • 17.2.2 Low-level Language Based on Boolean Functions
      • 17.2.3 Functional Blocks
      • 17.2.4 High-level Languages
    • 17.3 PLC Operation
    • 17.4 Microprocessor Construction
      • 17.4.1 Microprocessor
      • 17.4.2 Memory
      • 17.4.3 Input/Output
      • 17.4.4 DC Power Supplies
      • 17.4.5 Bus
      • 17.4.6 Interfacing
    • 17.5 Programming the Microprocessor
      • 17.5.1 Low-level Language Programming
      • 17.5.2 High-level Language Programming
    • 17.6 Microprocessor Operation
    • 17.7 Difference between PLCs and Microcomputers
    • Exercise
    • Review Questions
  • CHAPTER 18 INSTALLATION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLESHOOTING OF FLUID POWER SYSTEMS
    • 18.1 Installation of Hydraulic Systems
      • 18.1.1 Installation of Pumps
      • 18.1.2 Installation of Cylinders
      • 18.1.3 Installation of Valves
      • 18.1.4 Installation of Tubing
      • 18.1.5 Power Pack Installation
      • 18.1.6 Filling the System
    • 18.2 Maintenance of Hydraulic Systems
      • 18.2.1 Maintenance Schedule
    • 18.3 Troubleshooting of Hydraulic System
      • 18.3.1 Fault Finding Procedure
    • 18.4 Trouble — Possible Causes and Remedies
      • 18.4.1 Pumps
      • 18.4.2 Relief Valves
      • 18.4.3 Directional Valves
      • 18.4.4 Sequence Valves
      • 18.4.5 Unloading Valves
      • 18.4.6 Counterbalance Valves
      • 18.4.7 Flow Control Valves
      • 18.4.8 Remote Flow Control Valves
      • 18.4.9 Hydraulic Motors
      • 18.4.10 Hydraulic Cylinders
      • 18.4.11 Accumulators
      • 18.4.12 General Circuit Problems
    • 18.5 Installation of Pneumatic Systems
      • 18.5.1 Installation of FRL Unit
      • 18.5.2 Installation of Pneumatic Cylinder
      • 18.5.3 Installation of Pipelines
      • 18.5.4 Installation of Compressor
    • 18.6 Maintenance of Pneumatic System
      • 18.6.1 Maintenance Schedule
    • 18.7 Troubleshooting of Pneumatic Systems
    • 18.8 Trouble — Possible Causes and Remedies
      • 18.8.1 Compressor
      • 18.8.2 FRL Unit
      • 18.8.3 Air Cylinders and Air Motors
      • 18.8.4 Valves
      • 18.8.5 Pipe Lines and Hoses
    • Review Questions
  • CHAPTER 19 LOW – COST AUTOMATION
    • 19.1 Concepts of Low-cost Automation
    • 19.2 Technologies Used for LCA
    • 19.3 Applications
  • Appendices
    • Two-mark Questions and Answers
  • References
  • Index
Biographical note
Professor and Head Department of Mechanical Engineering Rvs College of Engineering Dindigul
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