Fundamentals of Production & Operations Management
Fundamentals of Production & Operations Management
ISBN 9789393665331
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This comprehensive book on Fundamentals of Production and Operations Management has been designed to address the requirements of students, research scholars at the post-graduate level and for tutors and academicians who specialize in Operations. This book will provide insight to those who wish to learn Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning. Also this will be of immense use to those working in IT space without Operations Management background.

  • Cover
  • Halftitle Page
  • About the Author
  • Title Page
  • Copyright Page
  • Dedication
  • Brief Contents
  • Contents
  • Preface
  • Chapter 1 Overview of Production and Operations Management
    • 1.1 Introduction
    • 1.2 Management : Definition
      • 1.2.1 Characteristics of Management
      • 1.2.2 Meaning of Management
    • 1.3 Production and Operations Management
      • 1.3.1 Scope of ‘POM’
      • 1.3.2 History of Production and Operations Management
      • 1.3.3 Contribution of Henry Ford, Deming, Crosby, Taguchi
      • 1.3.4 Definition of Production
      • 1.3.5 Functions of ‘POM’
    • 1.4 Relationship between ‘POM’ and Other Functions
    • 1.5 ‘POM’ and The Management Process
    • 1.6 Effect of the Time Element on ‘POM’
    • 1.7 Operations Management - Importance - Operation Strategy and Competitiveness
    • 1.8 Operational Excellence - World Class Manufacturing
    • 1.9 Strategic Decisions in Operations
    • 1.10 Manufacturing Vs. Service Operation
    • 1.11 Vertical Integration
    • 1.12 Evolution of the Factory System – Mass Customization
    • 1.13 Types of Industries: Variety of Businesses
    • 1.14 Integration of Manufacturing and Services - Scale of Operations
    • 1.15 Service Operations Management : Nature and Environment
      • 1.15.1 Flows and its Process Chart Analysis
      • 1.15.2 Process Flow Analysis
      • 1.15.3 Bottleneck
      • 1.15.4 An Understanding of Bottlenecks
      • 1.15.5 Location and Franchising
      • 1.15.6 Franchise (Licensing) Feasibility Analysis
      • 1.15.7 Supply and Demand Balancing in Service Industries
      • 1.15.8 Capacity Management
      • 1.15.9 Management of Professional Services
    • 1.16 Operations Management and its Impact on Information Technology and Globalization
    • 1.17 Productivity Management
    • 1.18 Recent Trends in Production and Operations Management
    • Review Questions
    • Multiple Choice Questions
  • Chapter 2 Production System
    • 2.1 System: Definition
      • 2.1.1 Type of Systems
    • 2.2 Business System
      • 2.2.1 Components of Business System
    • 2.3 Product vs. Services
    • 2.4 Production System
      • 2.4.1 Classification of Production System
    • 2.5 Organization Structure
    • 2.6 Hierarchy in Production Department
    • 2.7 Responsibilities of a Production Manager
    • Review Questions
    • Multiple Choice Questions
  • Chapter 3 Production Function
    • 3.1 Planning
    • 3.2 Definitions of Planning
    • 3.3 Purpose of Planning in Production Function
    • 3.4 Advantages of Planning in Production
    • 3.5 Disadvantages of Planning in Production
    • 3.6 Planning Process
    • 3.7 Planning and Management Levels
    • 3.8 Strategic Plans in Production Function
    • 3.9 Levels of Strategy
    • 3.10 Strategic Planning Process
    • 3.11 Tactical Planning
    • 3.12 Operational Planning
    • Review Questions
    • Multiple Choice Questions
  • Chapter 4 Product Design
    • 4.1 Product
    • 4.2 Types of Products
    • 4.3 Innovation
    • 4.4 New Product Development & Process Design, Learning Curve
    • 4.5 Components of Innovation
    • 4.6 Product Design
      • 4.6.1 Need for Design
      • 4.6.2 Preliminary Design
      • 4.6.3 Final Design
    • 4.7 Product – Process Relationship
    • 4.8 Substitution
    • 4.9 Response Strategies
    • 4.10 Cost Constraints and Other Internal Forces
    • 4.11 Model Variety
    • 4.12 Design of Services
    • 4.13 Product – Service Dominance Continuum
    • 4.14 Factors to be Considered while Designing
    • 4.15 Modular Design
      • 4.15.1 Advantages of Modular Design
      • 4.15.2 Disadvantages of Modular Design
    • 4.16 Standardization
      • 4.16.1 Standardization Procedure
      • 4.16.2 Advantages of Standardization
      • 4.16.3 Disadvantages of Standardization
      • 4.16.4 Application of Standardization
    • 4.17 Reliability and Maintainability
    • 4.18 Reverse Engineering
    • 4.19 Production Design for Organisational Competitiveness
    • 4.20 Design for Manufacturer (Dfm)
    • 4.21 Design for Customer
    • 4.22 Designing a Standard Product for Manufacturing and Assembly
    • 4.23 Design and Process Selection in Services
    • Review Questions
    • Multiple Choice Questions
  • Chapter 5 Technology
    • 5.1 Introduction
    • 5.2 Technology
    • 5.3 Characteristics of Technology
    • 5.4 Misconceptions about Technology
    • 5.5 Firms’ Orientation and Key Success Factors
    • 5.6 Issues Relating to Technology and the Responses
    • 5.7 Components of Technology
    • 5.8 Technology Variants
    • 5.9 Attributes of Technology Variants
    • 5.10 Driving Forces and Business Behaviour
    • 5.11 Technology and its Impact on Business
    • 5.12 Technology as a Competitive Weapon
    • 5.13 Characteristics of Technological Innovation
    • 5.14 Criteria for Technology Projects
    • 5.15 Managing the Technology Drive
    • 5.16 Technological Trajectories
    • 5.17 Technology Strategy
    • 5.18 Content of Technological Strategies
    • 5.19 Scale for Measuring Technologies
    • 5.20 Obstacles to Integrating Technology and Strategy
    • 5.21 Management Attitudes and Understanding
    • 5.22 Established Strategic-Planning: Precepts and Practices
    • 5.23 Organizational Coupling and Communications
    • 5.24 Strategic Technology Objectives
    • 5.25 Strategic Technology Planning
    • 5.26 Approaches for Integrating Technology into Strategic Planning
    • 5.27 Technical Retrofit
    • 5.28 Parallel Technology Planning
    • 5.29 “Zero – Based” Redesign
    • 5.30 Pitfalls of a Technically Strong Top Management
    • 5.31 Systems and Structure
    • 5.32 Implementation of Technology Strategy
    • 5.33 Technological Discontinuities and Institutional Continuities
    • 5.34 Compatibility of the System and Organisation
    • 5.35 Introduction to Technological Changes in Operations Management
    • 5.36 Evaluation and Impact on Management
      • 5.36.1 Impact on Management
    • 5.37 Manual, Mechanized and Automated Technology
    • 5.38 Meaning, Advantages and Applications of Robotics, NC Machines
      • 5.38.1 NC Machines
    • Review Questions
    • Multiple Choice Questions
  • Chapter 6 Process Planning
    • 6.1 Introduction
    • 6.2 Production Process
    • 6.3 Process Flow Structures
    • 6.4 Process Design
      • 6.4.1 Framework for Process Design
      • 6.4.2 Information Required to do Process Planning
      • 6.4.3 Factors Affecting Process Design
      • 6.4.4 Type of Process Design
    • 6.5 Process Planning Procedure
      • 6.5.1 Flow Chart
      • 6.5.2 Assembly Chart
    • 6.6 Make or Buy or Lease
      • 6.6.1 Problem on Make or Buy Decision
    • 6.7 Process Selection
      • 6.7.1 Work Place Design
      • 6.7.2 Tooling
    • 6.8 Manufacturing Procedure
      • 6.8.1 Operations and Route Sheet
    • 6.9 Break Even Analysis
      • 6.9.1 Bep Through Graph
      • 6.9.2 Sales Required to Achieve a Profit Level
    • 6.10 Engineering and Behavioural Approaches
    • Review Questions
    • Multiple Choice Questions
  • Chapter 7 Lean Manufacturing Systems
    • 7.1 Introduction
    • 7.2 Focus of Lean
    • 7.3 Lean: Strengths and Weaknesses
    • 7.4 Types of Waste
    • 7.5 Features of Lean Manufacturing
    • 7.6 Lean Implementation
    • 7.7 Product Flow
    • 7.8 Customer Value
    • 7.9 Pull System
    • 7.10 Effect of Lean Program
    • 7.11 5 S
    • 7.12 Kaizen
    • 7.13 8D (Eight Disciplines) Process
    • 7.14 Poka Yoke
    • 7.15 Simulation
    • 7.16 Japanese Approach for Elimination of Waste
    • Review Questions
    • Multiple Choice Questions
  • Chapter 8 Determination of Machine Tool Requirements
    • 8.1 Choice of Machine Tools
    • 8.2 Major Technological Choice
    • 8.3 Minor Technological Choice
    • 8.4 Characteristics of Production Systems
    • 8.5 Production System and Output Characteristics
    • 8.6 Specific Machine Tool Choice
    • 8.7 Special Purpose Equipments: Selection Criteria
    • 8.8 General Purpose Machines: Selection Criteria
    • 8.9 Reasons for Selection Methods
    • 8.10 Financial and Non-Financial Methods
    • 8.11 Return on Investment (ROI)
    • 8.12 MAPI Methods
    • Review Questions
    • Multiple Choice Questions
  • Chapter 9 BPR, ERP, CIM, Value Analysis
    • 9.1 Business Process Reengineering (Bpr)
      • 9.1.1 Business Process Reengineering
      • 9.1.2 Necessity for having BPR
      • 9.1.3 Essence of Reengineering
      • 9.1.4 Advantages of BPR
      • 9.1.5 Cost Implications
      • 9.1.6 BPR in Organizations
    • Review Questions
    • Multiple Choice Questions
    • 9.2 Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)
      • 9.2.1 Customer Domination
      • 9.2.2 Changing Face of the Industry
      • 9.2.3 Enterprise Resource Planning
      • 9.2.4 ERP - Definition
      • 9.2.5 Features of ERP
      • 9.2.6 Steps in ERP introduction
      • 9.2.7 Effect of ERP on Business
      • 9.2.8 Driving Forces behind ERP
      • 9.2.9 ERP Software
      • 9.2.10 ERP Modules
      • 9.2.11 Methods to Avoid ERP Implementation Failures
      • 9.2.12 Trouble in Installation
    • Review Questions
    • Multiple Choice Questions
    • 9.3 Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM)
      • 9.3.1 Automation
      • 9.3.2 Definition of Automation
      • 9.3.3 Reasons for Automation
      • 9.3.4 Arguments: For and Against Automation
      • 9.3.5 Computer Aided Design (CAD)
      • 9.3.6 CAD vs. Traditional Design
      • 9.3.7 Applications of CAD
      • 9.3.8 Benefits of CAD
      • 9.3.9 Differences in Scope: CAD/CAM vs. CIM
      • 9.3.10 CIM
      • 9.3.11 Flexible Manufacturing Systems
      • 9.3.12 FMS: Definition
      • 9.3.13 Elements of CIM
      • 9.3.14 Integrative Nature of CIM
      • 9.3.15 Application of CIM
    • Review Questions
    • Multiple Choice Questions
    • 9.4 Value Analysis
      • 9.4.1 Value
      • 9.4.2 Categorization of Values
      • 9.4.3 Value Analysis
      • 9.4.4 Framework of Value Analysis
      • 9.4.5 Value Analysis: Procedure and Focus
      • 9.4.6 Advantages of Value Analysis
    • Review Questions
    • Multiple Choice Questions
  • Chapter 10 Forecasting Techniques
    • 10.1 Introduction
    • 10.2 Methods of Forecasting
    • 10.3 Forecasting Errors
    • 10.4 Simple Average
    • 10.5 Simple Moving Average
    • 10.6 Weighted Moving Average (WMA)
    • 10.7 Exponential Smoothing
    • 10.8 Double Exponential Smoothing
    • 10.9 Regression Analysis
    • 10.10 Time Series Analysis
    • Review Questions
    • Multiple Choice Questions
  • Chapter 11 Capacity Planning
    • 11.1 Capacity: Definition
    • 11.2 When does the Capacity Question Come?
    • 11.3 Types of Capacity
      • 11.3.1 Design Capacity
      • 11.3.2 System Capacity
      • 11.3.3 Fixed Capacity
      • 11.3.4 Adjustable Capacity
      • 11.3.5 Potential Capacity
      • 11.3.6 Immediate Capacity
      • 11.3.7 Effective Capacity
      • 11.3.8 Normal or Rated Capacity
      • 11.3.6 Actual or Utilised Capacity
    • 11.4 Importance of Capacity Decision
    • 11.5 Capacity Decision
    • 11.6 Capacity Measurement
    • 11.7 Capacity Planning
      • 11.7.1 Need for Capacity Planning
      • 11.7.2 Factors Affecting Determination of Plant Capacity
      • 11.7.3 Capacity Planning Decisions
      • 11.7.4 Classification of Capacity Planning
    • 11.8 Capacity Change
    • 11.9 Constraints on Immediate Capacity
    • 11.10 Influences on Effective Capacity
    • 11.11 Capacity Requirement Planning (CRP)
      • 11.11.1 CRP Inputs
      • 11.11.2 CRP Outputs
    • 11.12 Service Capacity
      • 11.12.1 Difficulty in Service Capacity Planning
      • 11.12.2 Capacity Planning Process in Service Organisation
    • 11.13 Developing Capacity Alternatives
      • 11.13.1 Critical Reasons of Capacity Decisions
      • 11.13.2 Factors Deciding Effective Capacity
      • 11.13.3 Importance of Capacity Decisions
      • 11.13.4 Developing Capacity Alternatives
      • 11.13.5 Evaluating Alternatives
    • 11.14 Measurement of Capacity
    • Review Questions
    • Multiple Choice Questions
  • Chapter 12 Plant Layout
    • 12.1 Layout
      • 12.1.1 Importance of Layout
      • 12.1.2 Need for Layout Planning
      • 12.1.3 Principles of Layout
      • 12.1.4 Types of Layout
    • 12.2 Flow Patterns
    • 12.3 Objectives of a Good Plant Layout
    • 12.4 Factors for Good Layout
    • 12.5 Layout Design Procedure
    • 12.6 Types of Layout
      • 12.6.1 Classification by Work Flow
      • 12.6.2 Classification by Productive System Functions
    • 12.7 Product Layout (Assembly Line Layout)
      • 12.7.1 Conditions Favouring Product Layout
      • 12.7.2 Advantages of Product Layout
      • 12.7.3 Disadvantages of Product Layout
    • 12.8 Process Layout (Functional Layout)
      • 12.8.1 Advantages of Process Layout
      • 12.8.2 Disadvantages of Process Layout
    • 12.9 Cellular (or) Group Layout
      • 12.9.1 Cellular Layout
    • 12.10 Ergonomics
      • 12.10.1 Creating Comfort is Ergonomics
    • 12.11 Use of Service Facilities
    • 12.12 Use of Drawings, Templates and Models
    • 12.13 Workflow Systems
    • 12.14 Push and Pull systems
    • 12.15 Cellular and Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS)
    • Review Questions
    • Multiple Choice Questions
  • Chapter 13 Facility Location
    • 13.1 Introduction
    • 13.2 Facility Location: Meaning, Definition, Scope
    • 13.3 Location of Facilities
    • 13.4 Locational Flexibility
    • 13.5 Cost Factor
    • 13.6 Rate of Return Method (Ror)
    • 13.7 Plant Location in Town / Urban Area
    • 13.8 Plant Location in Rural Area
    • 13.9 Plant Location in Sub-Urban Areas
    • 13.10 Techniques Used for Facility Location
    • 13.11 Facility Design Process
    • 13.12 Locational Break Even Analysis
    • 13.13 Illustration
    • 13.14 Foreign Location
    • 13.15 Relocation
    • 13.16 Plant Location Trends
    • Review Questions
    • Multiple Choice Questions
  • Chapter 14 Job Design
    • 14.1 Human Factors in Job Design
      • 14.1.1 Factors Influencing Job Design
    • 14.2 Consideration of Man and Machine in Job Design
      • 14.2.1 Adaptation of Machine to Man
    • 14.3 Ergonomics
      • 14.3.1 Types of Ergonomics
      • 14.3.2 Methods of Ergonomics Analysis
      • 14.3.3 Demerits
    • 14.4 Working Environment
      • 14.4.1 Symptoms of Positive Work Environment
    • 14.5 Worker Safety
    • 14.6 Workplace Hazards: Physical and Mechanical
      • 14.6.1 Biological and Chemical Hazards
      • 14.6.2 Psychological and Social Issues
    • 14.7 Views on Job Design
      • 14.7.1 Top-down Approach
      • 14.7.2 Bottom-up Approach
    • 14.8 Research Findings
    • 14.9 Systems Approach
    • 14.10 Organizational System
    • 14.11 Guiding Principles
    • 14.12 Job Enlargement
    • 14.13 Job Enrichment
    • Review Questions
    • Multiple Choice Questions
  • Chapter 15 Production Planning and Control
    • 15.1 Introduction
    • 15.2 Definition
    • 15.3 Integrative Nature of Production Plans
    • 15.4 Pre-Planning
    • 15.5 Forecasting
      • 15.5.1 Purpose of Forecasting
      • 15.5.2 Basic Elements of Forecasting
      • 15.5.3 Sales Forecasting Techniques
    • 15.6 Order Writing
    • 15.7 Product Design
    • 15.8 Aggregate Production Planning (App)
    • 15.9 Material Requirements Planning (Mrp)
    • 15.10 Line of Balance (Lob)
    • 15.11 Loading
      • 15.11.1 Aims of Loading
    • 15.12 Scheduling
      • 15.12.1 Factors Affecting Scheduling
      • 15.12.2 Scheduling and Control of Production
      • 15.12.3 Advantages of Master Scheduling
      • 15.12.4 Disadvantages of Master Scheduling
      • 15.12.5 Applications of Scheduling
      • 15.12.6 Gantt Chart
      • 15.12.7 Order Scheduling
    • 15.13 Production Control
    • 15.14 Dispatching
      • 15.14.1 Centralized and Decentralized Dispatching
    • 15.15 Routing
      • 15.15.1 Routing Procedure
    • 15.16 Progress Control
      • 15.16.1 Steps Involved in Progress Control
    • 15.17 Follow Up or Expediting
    • 15.18 Line Balancing
    • 15.19 Line of Balance (Lob)
      • 15.19.1 Advantages
    • 15.20 Scheduling and Resource Allocation: Illustrations
    • Review Questions
    • Multiple Choice Questions
  • Chapter 16 Material Planning Techniques
    • 16.1 Aggregate Planning
      • 16.1.1 Focus of Aggregate Planning
      • 16.1.2 Objectives of Aggregate Planning
      • 16.1.3 Types of Aggregate Planning
      • 16.1.4 Production Variables
      • 16.1.5 Aggregate Planning - Relevant Costs
      • 16.1.6 Aggregate Planning Strategies
      • 16.1.7 Approaches to Aggregate Planning
      • 16.1.8 Intuitive Method
      • 16.1.9 Evaluation of Strategic Alternatives
      • 16.1.10 Economies and Diseconomies of Scale
      • 16.1.11 Definition of ‘Diseconomies of Scale’
    • Review Questions
    • Multiple Choice Questions
    • 16.2 Materials Requirements Planning (MRP)
      • 16.2.1 Simple and Closed Loop MRP
      • 16.2.2 Factors Affecting MRP
      • 16.2.3 MRP: Process
      • 16.2.4 Benefits of MRP
      • 16.2.5 Shortcomings of MRP
    • Review Questions
    • Multiple Choice Questions
    • 16.3 Just In Time (JIT)
      • 16.3.1 Evolution of JIT
      • 16.3.2 Importance of JIT
      • 16.3.3 Steps in JIT’s Development
      • 16.3.4 Keys to Successful JIT Implementation
    • Review Questions
    • Multiple Choice Questions
  • Chapter 17 Inventory
    • 17.1 Inventory: Definition
    • 17.2 Inventory Control
    • 17.3 Functions of Inventory
    • 17.4 Independent Demand vs. Dependent Demand
    • 17.5 Purpose of Inventory
    • 17.6 Classification of Inventory
    • 17.7 Types of Product Inventories
    • 17.8 Types of Service Inventories
    • 17.9 Effect of Inventory Systems
    • 17.10 Inventory Model – Terminologies
    • 17.11 Consumption during Lead – Time
    • 17.12 Correction of Lead Time
    • 17.13 Classification of Inventory Models
    • 17.14 Comparison of P and Q Inventory Systems
    • 17.15 Q-System
    • 17.16 P-System
    • 17.17 Q and P System: A Comparison
    • 17.18 Economic Order Quantity (EOQ)
      • 17.18.1 Procurement Cost
      • 17.18.2 Inventory Carrying Cost (IC Cost)
      • 17.18.3 Stock Out Cost
    • 17.19 Cost Trade – Off
    • 17.20 EOQ Calculation
    • 17.21 Deterministic Inventory Models
    • 17.22 Q-Inventory System
    • 17.23 Gradual Replacement Model (Finite Production Rate)
    • 17.24 Lead Time in Deterministic Models
    • 17.25 Stochastic Inventory Models
    • 17.26 ‘Rol’ Systems of Inventory Control
    • 17.27 Inventory Control Techniques
    • 17.28 VED Analysis
    • 17.29 HML Analysis
    • Review Questions
    • Multiple Choice Questions
  • Chapter 18 Stores Management
    • 18.1 Functions of Stores
    • 18.2 Objectives and Prerequisites of Stores
      • 18.2.1 Objectives of Store-Keeping
    • 18.3 Types of Stores
      • 18.3.1 Centralized Stores
      • 18.3.2 Decentralized Stores
    • 18.4 Effective Stores Management
    • 18.5 Store Accounting Records
    • 18.6 Physical Verification
      • 18.6.1 Stock Verification
      • 18.6.2 Periodic Verification
      • 18.6.3 Continuous Verification
    • 18.7 Materials Management - Objectives
      • 18.7.1 Primary Objectives
      • 18.7.2 Secondary Objectives
    • 18.8 Material Forecasting and Planning
      • 18.8.1 Statistical Forecasting
      • 18.8.2 Non-Statistical Forecasting
    • 18.9 Fixed Order Size and Fixed Order Interval System
      • 18.9.1 How Much to Order: Fixed-Order-Interval Model
    • 18.10 Deterministic, Probabilistic Models and Static Inventory Models
    • 18.11 Spare Parts Management
      • 18.11.1 Criteria for Spare Parts Management
      • 18.11.2 Optimization of Spare Parts
      • 18.11.3 Statistical Tools for Spare Parts Management
    • 18.12 Aggregate Inventory Management
      • 18.12.1 Definition
      • 18.12.2 Objectives
      • 18.12.3 Assessment of Aggregate Inventory Requirements
      • 18.12.4 Measure Historical and Current Inventory Levels and Performance
      • 18.12.5 Establish Performance Metrics
      • 18.12.6 Inventory System Metrics
      • 18.12.7 Tool for Inventory Management
      • 18.12.8 Create an Inventory Build-up Chart
      • 18.12.9 Key Drivers to Control Inventory
    • 18.13 Implementation Aspects of Inventory Systems
      • 18.13.1 Implementation Issues
    • 18.14 Materials Accounting and Budgeting
      • 18.14.1 Materials Budgeting
    • 18.15 Material Management Performance Evaluation
      • 18.15.1 Evaluation Parameters
    • 18.16 Variety Reduction
    • 18.17 Stores Layout, Storage Systems and Equipment
    • 18.18 Material Handling – Operating Strategy
      • 18.18.1 Standardization Aspect
      • 18.18.2 Work Aspect
      • 18.18.3 Ergonomics Aspect
      • 18.18.4 Unit Load Aspect
      • 18.18.5 Space Utilization Aspect
      • 18.18.6 System Aspect
      • 18.18.7 Automation Aspect
      • 18.18.8 Environmental Aspect
      • 18.18.9 Life Cycle Cost Aspect
    • 18.19 Overview of Materials Management Information Systems
      • 18.19.1 Functions of MMIS
      • 18.19.2 Technology Applications
      • 18.19.3 Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)
      • 18.19.4 Mobile Data Entry and Retrieval
      • 18.19.5 Financial System Interfaces
    • Review Questions
    • Multiple Choice Questions
  • Chapter 19 Purchase Management
    • 19.1 Introduction
    • 19.2 Functions of Materials Management
    • 19.3 Principles of Purchasing
    • 19.4 The Purchasing Cycle
    • 19.5 Goals of Purchasing
    • 19.6 Purchase Plan
    • 19.7 Purchasing Functions: Policies, Procedures and Legal Aspects
    • 19.8 Steps in Purchasing
    • 19.9 Purchasing Capital Equipments
    • 19.10 Vendor Rating
    • 19.11 Vendor Evaluation and Rating
    • 19.12 Codification
      • 19.12.1 Kodak System
      • 19.12.2 Advantages of Codification
    • 19.13 Kanban and its Types
      • 19.13.1 Types of Kanban
      • 19.13.2 Kanban: Implementation Pre-requisites
    • 19.14 Bin and Review Systems
    • 19.15 Warehouses
      • 19.15.1 Modern Trends
      • 19.15.2 Cold Storages: Basic Requirements
      • 19.15.3 Importance
      • 19.15.4 Systems
      • 19.15.5 Group of Products: General Category
      • 19.15.6 Location of Warehouse
      • 19.15.7 Advantages
      • 19.15.8 Implementing Automation
      • 19.15.9 Future Trends
    • 19.16 Dynamic Purchasing
      • 19.16.1 Establishment of DPS
    • Review Questions
    • Multiple Choice Questions
  • Chapter 20 Work Study
    • 20.1 Work Study
    • 20.2 Work Study Definition
    • 20.3 Importance and Scope of Work Study
    • 20.4 Significance of Work Study
    • 20.5 Work Study and Productivity
    • 20.6 Work Sampling
      • 20.6.1 Uses of Work Sampling
      • 20.6.2 Characteristics of Work Sampling Study
    • 20.7 Advantages of Work Study
    • 20.8 Techniques of Work Study
    • 20.9 Uses of Work Study
    • 20.10 Definition: Methods Study
    • 20.11 Objectives of Method Study
    • 20.12 Method Study Procedure
    • 20.13 Therbligs
    • 20.14 Process Chart
    • 20.15 Flow Diagram
    • 20.16 String Diagram
    • 20.17 Time Study or Work Measurement
    • 20.18 Objectives of Work Measurement
    • 20.19 Uses of Time Study
    • 20.20 Procedure for Time Study
    • 20.21 Step-by-Step Procedure of Work Measurement
    • 20.22 Principles of Motion Economy & Stop Watch Time
      • 20.22.1 Work Place Principles
      • 20.22.2 Tools and Equipment Principles
    • 20.23 Rating Factor
    • 20.24 Normal Time and Standard Time
    • 20.25 Synthetic Time – Standards
    • 20.26 Allowances
    • 20.27 Micromotion Films
    • 20.28 Memotion Technique
    • 20.29 Usefulness of Time Measurement
    • 20.30 Importance of Rating & Allowance in Time Study
    • 20.31 Pre-Determined Time Standard
      • 20.31.1 Factors to be Considered in using a Predetermined Time System (PTS)
      • 20.31.2 Advantages
    • 20.32 Process Mapping
      • 20.32.1 Objectives
      • 20.32.2 Process Maps
      • 20.32.3 Terms Used in Process Mapping
      • 20.32.4 Steps in Mapping Process
      • 20.32.5 Advantages of Process Maps
    • 20.33 Performance Rating Elements
    • Review Questions
    • Multiple Choice Questions
  • Chapter 21 Network
    • 21.1 Project: Definition
    • 21.2 What is a Project?
    • 21.3 Project Characteristics
    • 21.4 Project Life Cycle
    • 21.5 Problems in Managing a Project
    • 21.6 PM – Basic Questions
    • 21.7 Network Analysis
    • 21.8 PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique)
    • 21.9 CPM (Critical Path Method)
    • 21.10 PERT and CPM: Differences
    • 21.11 When to Use PERT / CPM?
    • 21.12 How does Pert Work?
    • 21.13 Advantages of Pert
    • 21.14 Pert Terminology
    • 21.15 PERT / CPM Assumptions
    • 21.16 Rules of Network Construction
      • 21.16.1 Dummy Activities
    • 21.17 Cpm and its Advantages
    • 21.18 Steps in “Cpm” Technique
    • 21.19 Crashing
    • 21.20 Crashing Procedure
    • 21.21 Illustrations
    • Review Questions
    • Multiple Choice Questions
  • Chapter 22 Quality Management
    • 22.1 Quality
    • 22.2 Quality Characteristics
    • 22.3 Meaning of Quality
    • 22.4 Evolution of Quality Activities
    • 22.5 Inspection and It’s Types
    • 22.6 Interpretation of Control Charts
    • 22.7 Purpose of Inspection
    • 22.8 Control Charts for Variables
    • 22.9 Goods and Services – Characteristics
    • 22.10 Quality Improvement Tools
    • 22.11 Service Quality
    • 22.12 QC Circle
    • 22.13 QC Circle Activities
    • 22.14 QC Circle Operation
    • 22.15 Quality Improvement Schemes
    • 22.16 Sporadic and Chronic Quality Problems
    • 22.17 Breakthrough Sequence
    • 22.18 Quality Policy
    • 22.19 Need for Quality Policies
    • 22.20 Examples of Quality Policy
    • 22.21 International Standard Organisation (Iso)
    • 22.22 Iso Nomenclature
    • 22.23 Structure of ISO 9000
    • 22.24 Structure of Quality Standards
    • 22.25 Quality Assurance
    • 22.26 Total Quality Management
    • 22.27 Fundamentals of TQM
    • Review Questions
    • Multiple Choice Questions
  • Chapter 23 Statistical Quality Control
    • 23.1 Quality Control: Definition
    • 23.2 Objectives of Quality Control
    • 23.3 Statistical Quality Control (SQC)
    • 23.4 Purpose of ‘SQC’
    • 23.5 Advantages of ‘SQC’
    • 23.6 Techniques of Statistical Quality Control
    • 23.7 Variable Basis
    • 23.8 Attribute Basis
    • 23.9 Classification of ‘SQC’
    • 23.10 Normal Distribution
    • 23.11 Control Chart
    • 23.12 Six Sigma
    • 23.13 X and R Chart
    • 23.14 X and R Chart Construction
    • 23.15 P – Chart
    • 23.16 Features of P – Chart
    • 23.17 c – Chart
    • 23.18 Features of the c – Chart
    • 23.19 Acceptance Sampling
    • 23.20 Trade Off
    • 23.21 Operating Characteristics Curve (OC Curve)
    • 23.22 Errors in Sampling Plan
    • 23.23 Concept of Type – I and Type – II Error
    • 23.24 Sampling Plans
    • 23.25 Single Sampling Plan
    • 23.26 Characteristics of Single Sampling Plan
    • 23.27 Double Sampling Plan
    • 23.28 Characteristics of Double Sampling Plan
    • 23.29 Multiple Sampling Plan
    • 23.30 Sampling and Process Control
    • Review Questions
    • Multiple Choice Questions
  • Chapter 24 Maintenance Management
    • 24.1 Objectives of Maintenance
    • 24.2 Elements of Maintenance
    • 24.3 Functions of Maintenance Management
    • 24.4 Types of Maintenance
    • 24.5 Breakdown Time
    • 24.6 Basic Maintenance Decisions
    • 24.7 Corrective Maintenance
    • 24.8 Breakdown Maintenance
    • 24.9 Optimal Crew Size
    • 24.10 Preventive Maintenance
    • 24.11 Advantages of Maintenance
    • 24.12 Requirement for Good Maintenance
    • 24.13 Total Productive Maintenance
    • 24.14 Group Replacement Policy
    • 24.15 Maintenance Records
    • 24.16 Equipment Life Cycle
    • 24.17 Maintenance Alternatives
    • 24.18 Managing Work Environment
    • 24.19 Waste Management
    • 24.20 Automation
    • 24.21 Statistics of Failure
    • 24.22 Industry Safety
    • 24.23 Maintenance Policies
    • Review Questions
    • Multiple Choice Questions
  • References
  • Index
Dean-Faculty of Management Professor of Management & Head Department of Logistics Management Alagappa University Karaikudi & Formerly Management Scientist - C Indian Guided Missiles Programme Defence R&D Laboratory, DRDO
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Description

This comprehensive book on Fundamentals of Production and Operations Management has been designed to address the requirements of students, research scholars at the post-graduate level and for tutors and academicians who specialize in Operations. This book will provide insight to those who wish to learn Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning. Also this will be of immense use to those working in IT space without Operations Management background.

Table of contents
  • Cover
  • Halftitle Page
  • About the Author
  • Title Page
  • Copyright Page
  • Dedication
  • Brief Contents
  • Contents
  • Preface
  • Chapter 1 Overview of Production and Operations Management
    • 1.1 Introduction
    • 1.2 Management : Definition
      • 1.2.1 Characteristics of Management
      • 1.2.2 Meaning of Management
    • 1.3 Production and Operations Management
      • 1.3.1 Scope of ‘POM’
      • 1.3.2 History of Production and Operations Management
      • 1.3.3 Contribution of Henry Ford, Deming, Crosby, Taguchi
      • 1.3.4 Definition of Production
      • 1.3.5 Functions of ‘POM’
    • 1.4 Relationship between ‘POM’ and Other Functions
    • 1.5 ‘POM’ and The Management Process
    • 1.6 Effect of the Time Element on ‘POM’
    • 1.7 Operations Management - Importance - Operation Strategy and Competitiveness
    • 1.8 Operational Excellence - World Class Manufacturing
    • 1.9 Strategic Decisions in Operations
    • 1.10 Manufacturing Vs. Service Operation
    • 1.11 Vertical Integration
    • 1.12 Evolution of the Factory System – Mass Customization
    • 1.13 Types of Industries: Variety of Businesses
    • 1.14 Integration of Manufacturing and Services - Scale of Operations
    • 1.15 Service Operations Management : Nature and Environment
      • 1.15.1 Flows and its Process Chart Analysis
      • 1.15.2 Process Flow Analysis
      • 1.15.3 Bottleneck
      • 1.15.4 An Understanding of Bottlenecks
      • 1.15.5 Location and Franchising
      • 1.15.6 Franchise (Licensing) Feasibility Analysis
      • 1.15.7 Supply and Demand Balancing in Service Industries
      • 1.15.8 Capacity Management
      • 1.15.9 Management of Professional Services
    • 1.16 Operations Management and its Impact on Information Technology and Globalization
    • 1.17 Productivity Management
    • 1.18 Recent Trends in Production and Operations Management
    • Review Questions
    • Multiple Choice Questions
  • Chapter 2 Production System
    • 2.1 System: Definition
      • 2.1.1 Type of Systems
    • 2.2 Business System
      • 2.2.1 Components of Business System
    • 2.3 Product vs. Services
    • 2.4 Production System
      • 2.4.1 Classification of Production System
    • 2.5 Organization Structure
    • 2.6 Hierarchy in Production Department
    • 2.7 Responsibilities of a Production Manager
    • Review Questions
    • Multiple Choice Questions
  • Chapter 3 Production Function
    • 3.1 Planning
    • 3.2 Definitions of Planning
    • 3.3 Purpose of Planning in Production Function
    • 3.4 Advantages of Planning in Production
    • 3.5 Disadvantages of Planning in Production
    • 3.6 Planning Process
    • 3.7 Planning and Management Levels
    • 3.8 Strategic Plans in Production Function
    • 3.9 Levels of Strategy
    • 3.10 Strategic Planning Process
    • 3.11 Tactical Planning
    • 3.12 Operational Planning
    • Review Questions
    • Multiple Choice Questions
  • Chapter 4 Product Design
    • 4.1 Product
    • 4.2 Types of Products
    • 4.3 Innovation
    • 4.4 New Product Development & Process Design, Learning Curve
    • 4.5 Components of Innovation
    • 4.6 Product Design
      • 4.6.1 Need for Design
      • 4.6.2 Preliminary Design
      • 4.6.3 Final Design
    • 4.7 Product – Process Relationship
    • 4.8 Substitution
    • 4.9 Response Strategies
    • 4.10 Cost Constraints and Other Internal Forces
    • 4.11 Model Variety
    • 4.12 Design of Services
    • 4.13 Product – Service Dominance Continuum
    • 4.14 Factors to be Considered while Designing
    • 4.15 Modular Design
      • 4.15.1 Advantages of Modular Design
      • 4.15.2 Disadvantages of Modular Design
    • 4.16 Standardization
      • 4.16.1 Standardization Procedure
      • 4.16.2 Advantages of Standardization
      • 4.16.3 Disadvantages of Standardization
      • 4.16.4 Application of Standardization
    • 4.17 Reliability and Maintainability
    • 4.18 Reverse Engineering
    • 4.19 Production Design for Organisational Competitiveness
    • 4.20 Design for Manufacturer (Dfm)
    • 4.21 Design for Customer
    • 4.22 Designing a Standard Product for Manufacturing and Assembly
    • 4.23 Design and Process Selection in Services
    • Review Questions
    • Multiple Choice Questions
  • Chapter 5 Technology
    • 5.1 Introduction
    • 5.2 Technology
    • 5.3 Characteristics of Technology
    • 5.4 Misconceptions about Technology
    • 5.5 Firms’ Orientation and Key Success Factors
    • 5.6 Issues Relating to Technology and the Responses
    • 5.7 Components of Technology
    • 5.8 Technology Variants
    • 5.9 Attributes of Technology Variants
    • 5.10 Driving Forces and Business Behaviour
    • 5.11 Technology and its Impact on Business
    • 5.12 Technology as a Competitive Weapon
    • 5.13 Characteristics of Technological Innovation
    • 5.14 Criteria for Technology Projects
    • 5.15 Managing the Technology Drive
    • 5.16 Technological Trajectories
    • 5.17 Technology Strategy
    • 5.18 Content of Technological Strategies
    • 5.19 Scale for Measuring Technologies
    • 5.20 Obstacles to Integrating Technology and Strategy
    • 5.21 Management Attitudes and Understanding
    • 5.22 Established Strategic-Planning: Precepts and Practices
    • 5.23 Organizational Coupling and Communications
    • 5.24 Strategic Technology Objectives
    • 5.25 Strategic Technology Planning
    • 5.26 Approaches for Integrating Technology into Strategic Planning
    • 5.27 Technical Retrofit
    • 5.28 Parallel Technology Planning
    • 5.29 “Zero – Based” Redesign
    • 5.30 Pitfalls of a Technically Strong Top Management
    • 5.31 Systems and Structure
    • 5.32 Implementation of Technology Strategy
    • 5.33 Technological Discontinuities and Institutional Continuities
    • 5.34 Compatibility of the System and Organisation
    • 5.35 Introduction to Technological Changes in Operations Management
    • 5.36 Evaluation and Impact on Management
      • 5.36.1 Impact on Management
    • 5.37 Manual, Mechanized and Automated Technology
    • 5.38 Meaning, Advantages and Applications of Robotics, NC Machines
      • 5.38.1 NC Machines
    • Review Questions
    • Multiple Choice Questions
  • Chapter 6 Process Planning
    • 6.1 Introduction
    • 6.2 Production Process
    • 6.3 Process Flow Structures
    • 6.4 Process Design
      • 6.4.1 Framework for Process Design
      • 6.4.2 Information Required to do Process Planning
      • 6.4.3 Factors Affecting Process Design
      • 6.4.4 Type of Process Design
    • 6.5 Process Planning Procedure
      • 6.5.1 Flow Chart
      • 6.5.2 Assembly Chart
    • 6.6 Make or Buy or Lease
      • 6.6.1 Problem on Make or Buy Decision
    • 6.7 Process Selection
      • 6.7.1 Work Place Design
      • 6.7.2 Tooling
    • 6.8 Manufacturing Procedure
      • 6.8.1 Operations and Route Sheet
    • 6.9 Break Even Analysis
      • 6.9.1 Bep Through Graph
      • 6.9.2 Sales Required to Achieve a Profit Level
    • 6.10 Engineering and Behavioural Approaches
    • Review Questions
    • Multiple Choice Questions
  • Chapter 7 Lean Manufacturing Systems
    • 7.1 Introduction
    • 7.2 Focus of Lean
    • 7.3 Lean: Strengths and Weaknesses
    • 7.4 Types of Waste
    • 7.5 Features of Lean Manufacturing
    • 7.6 Lean Implementation
    • 7.7 Product Flow
    • 7.8 Customer Value
    • 7.9 Pull System
    • 7.10 Effect of Lean Program
    • 7.11 5 S
    • 7.12 Kaizen
    • 7.13 8D (Eight Disciplines) Process
    • 7.14 Poka Yoke
    • 7.15 Simulation
    • 7.16 Japanese Approach for Elimination of Waste
    • Review Questions
    • Multiple Choice Questions
  • Chapter 8 Determination of Machine Tool Requirements
    • 8.1 Choice of Machine Tools
    • 8.2 Major Technological Choice
    • 8.3 Minor Technological Choice
    • 8.4 Characteristics of Production Systems
    • 8.5 Production System and Output Characteristics
    • 8.6 Specific Machine Tool Choice
    • 8.7 Special Purpose Equipments: Selection Criteria
    • 8.8 General Purpose Machines: Selection Criteria
    • 8.9 Reasons for Selection Methods
    • 8.10 Financial and Non-Financial Methods
    • 8.11 Return on Investment (ROI)
    • 8.12 MAPI Methods
    • Review Questions
    • Multiple Choice Questions
  • Chapter 9 BPR, ERP, CIM, Value Analysis
    • 9.1 Business Process Reengineering (Bpr)
      • 9.1.1 Business Process Reengineering
      • 9.1.2 Necessity for having BPR
      • 9.1.3 Essence of Reengineering
      • 9.1.4 Advantages of BPR
      • 9.1.5 Cost Implications
      • 9.1.6 BPR in Organizations
    • Review Questions
    • Multiple Choice Questions
    • 9.2 Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)
      • 9.2.1 Customer Domination
      • 9.2.2 Changing Face of the Industry
      • 9.2.3 Enterprise Resource Planning
      • 9.2.4 ERP - Definition
      • 9.2.5 Features of ERP
      • 9.2.6 Steps in ERP introduction
      • 9.2.7 Effect of ERP on Business
      • 9.2.8 Driving Forces behind ERP
      • 9.2.9 ERP Software
      • 9.2.10 ERP Modules
      • 9.2.11 Methods to Avoid ERP Implementation Failures
      • 9.2.12 Trouble in Installation
    • Review Questions
    • Multiple Choice Questions
    • 9.3 Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM)
      • 9.3.1 Automation
      • 9.3.2 Definition of Automation
      • 9.3.3 Reasons for Automation
      • 9.3.4 Arguments: For and Against Automation
      • 9.3.5 Computer Aided Design (CAD)
      • 9.3.6 CAD vs. Traditional Design
      • 9.3.7 Applications of CAD
      • 9.3.8 Benefits of CAD
      • 9.3.9 Differences in Scope: CAD/CAM vs. CIM
      • 9.3.10 CIM
      • 9.3.11 Flexible Manufacturing Systems
      • 9.3.12 FMS: Definition
      • 9.3.13 Elements of CIM
      • 9.3.14 Integrative Nature of CIM
      • 9.3.15 Application of CIM
    • Review Questions
    • Multiple Choice Questions
    • 9.4 Value Analysis
      • 9.4.1 Value
      • 9.4.2 Categorization of Values
      • 9.4.3 Value Analysis
      • 9.4.4 Framework of Value Analysis
      • 9.4.5 Value Analysis: Procedure and Focus
      • 9.4.6 Advantages of Value Analysis
    • Review Questions
    • Multiple Choice Questions
  • Chapter 10 Forecasting Techniques
    • 10.1 Introduction
    • 10.2 Methods of Forecasting
    • 10.3 Forecasting Errors
    • 10.4 Simple Average
    • 10.5 Simple Moving Average
    • 10.6 Weighted Moving Average (WMA)
    • 10.7 Exponential Smoothing
    • 10.8 Double Exponential Smoothing
    • 10.9 Regression Analysis
    • 10.10 Time Series Analysis
    • Review Questions
    • Multiple Choice Questions
  • Chapter 11 Capacity Planning
    • 11.1 Capacity: Definition
    • 11.2 When does the Capacity Question Come?
    • 11.3 Types of Capacity
      • 11.3.1 Design Capacity
      • 11.3.2 System Capacity
      • 11.3.3 Fixed Capacity
      • 11.3.4 Adjustable Capacity
      • 11.3.5 Potential Capacity
      • 11.3.6 Immediate Capacity
      • 11.3.7 Effective Capacity
      • 11.3.8 Normal or Rated Capacity
      • 11.3.6 Actual or Utilised Capacity
    • 11.4 Importance of Capacity Decision
    • 11.5 Capacity Decision
    • 11.6 Capacity Measurement
    • 11.7 Capacity Planning
      • 11.7.1 Need for Capacity Planning
      • 11.7.2 Factors Affecting Determination of Plant Capacity
      • 11.7.3 Capacity Planning Decisions
      • 11.7.4 Classification of Capacity Planning
    • 11.8 Capacity Change
    • 11.9 Constraints on Immediate Capacity
    • 11.10 Influences on Effective Capacity
    • 11.11 Capacity Requirement Planning (CRP)
      • 11.11.1 CRP Inputs
      • 11.11.2 CRP Outputs
    • 11.12 Service Capacity
      • 11.12.1 Difficulty in Service Capacity Planning
      • 11.12.2 Capacity Planning Process in Service Organisation
    • 11.13 Developing Capacity Alternatives
      • 11.13.1 Critical Reasons of Capacity Decisions
      • 11.13.2 Factors Deciding Effective Capacity
      • 11.13.3 Importance of Capacity Decisions
      • 11.13.4 Developing Capacity Alternatives
      • 11.13.5 Evaluating Alternatives
    • 11.14 Measurement of Capacity
    • Review Questions
    • Multiple Choice Questions
  • Chapter 12 Plant Layout
    • 12.1 Layout
      • 12.1.1 Importance of Layout
      • 12.1.2 Need for Layout Planning
      • 12.1.3 Principles of Layout
      • 12.1.4 Types of Layout
    • 12.2 Flow Patterns
    • 12.3 Objectives of a Good Plant Layout
    • 12.4 Factors for Good Layout
    • 12.5 Layout Design Procedure
    • 12.6 Types of Layout
      • 12.6.1 Classification by Work Flow
      • 12.6.2 Classification by Productive System Functions
    • 12.7 Product Layout (Assembly Line Layout)
      • 12.7.1 Conditions Favouring Product Layout
      • 12.7.2 Advantages of Product Layout
      • 12.7.3 Disadvantages of Product Layout
    • 12.8 Process Layout (Functional Layout)
      • 12.8.1 Advantages of Process Layout
      • 12.8.2 Disadvantages of Process Layout
    • 12.9 Cellular (or) Group Layout
      • 12.9.1 Cellular Layout
    • 12.10 Ergonomics
      • 12.10.1 Creating Comfort is Ergonomics
    • 12.11 Use of Service Facilities
    • 12.12 Use of Drawings, Templates and Models
    • 12.13 Workflow Systems
    • 12.14 Push and Pull systems
    • 12.15 Cellular and Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS)
    • Review Questions
    • Multiple Choice Questions
  • Chapter 13 Facility Location
    • 13.1 Introduction
    • 13.2 Facility Location: Meaning, Definition, Scope
    • 13.3 Location of Facilities
    • 13.4 Locational Flexibility
    • 13.5 Cost Factor
    • 13.6 Rate of Return Method (Ror)
    • 13.7 Plant Location in Town / Urban Area
    • 13.8 Plant Location in Rural Area
    • 13.9 Plant Location in Sub-Urban Areas
    • 13.10 Techniques Used for Facility Location
    • 13.11 Facility Design Process
    • 13.12 Locational Break Even Analysis
    • 13.13 Illustration
    • 13.14 Foreign Location
    • 13.15 Relocation
    • 13.16 Plant Location Trends
    • Review Questions
    • Multiple Choice Questions
  • Chapter 14 Job Design
    • 14.1 Human Factors in Job Design
      • 14.1.1 Factors Influencing Job Design
    • 14.2 Consideration of Man and Machine in Job Design
      • 14.2.1 Adaptation of Machine to Man
    • 14.3 Ergonomics
      • 14.3.1 Types of Ergonomics
      • 14.3.2 Methods of Ergonomics Analysis
      • 14.3.3 Demerits
    • 14.4 Working Environment
      • 14.4.1 Symptoms of Positive Work Environment
    • 14.5 Worker Safety
    • 14.6 Workplace Hazards: Physical and Mechanical
      • 14.6.1 Biological and Chemical Hazards
      • 14.6.2 Psychological and Social Issues
    • 14.7 Views on Job Design
      • 14.7.1 Top-down Approach
      • 14.7.2 Bottom-up Approach
    • 14.8 Research Findings
    • 14.9 Systems Approach
    • 14.10 Organizational System
    • 14.11 Guiding Principles
    • 14.12 Job Enlargement
    • 14.13 Job Enrichment
    • Review Questions
    • Multiple Choice Questions
  • Chapter 15 Production Planning and Control
    • 15.1 Introduction
    • 15.2 Definition
    • 15.3 Integrative Nature of Production Plans
    • 15.4 Pre-Planning
    • 15.5 Forecasting
      • 15.5.1 Purpose of Forecasting
      • 15.5.2 Basic Elements of Forecasting
      • 15.5.3 Sales Forecasting Techniques
    • 15.6 Order Writing
    • 15.7 Product Design
    • 15.8 Aggregate Production Planning (App)
    • 15.9 Material Requirements Planning (Mrp)
    • 15.10 Line of Balance (Lob)
    • 15.11 Loading
      • 15.11.1 Aims of Loading
    • 15.12 Scheduling
      • 15.12.1 Factors Affecting Scheduling
      • 15.12.2 Scheduling and Control of Production
      • 15.12.3 Advantages of Master Scheduling
      • 15.12.4 Disadvantages of Master Scheduling
      • 15.12.5 Applications of Scheduling
      • 15.12.6 Gantt Chart
      • 15.12.7 Order Scheduling
    • 15.13 Production Control
    • 15.14 Dispatching
      • 15.14.1 Centralized and Decentralized Dispatching
    • 15.15 Routing
      • 15.15.1 Routing Procedure
    • 15.16 Progress Control
      • 15.16.1 Steps Involved in Progress Control
    • 15.17 Follow Up or Expediting
    • 15.18 Line Balancing
    • 15.19 Line of Balance (Lob)
      • 15.19.1 Advantages
    • 15.20 Scheduling and Resource Allocation: Illustrations
    • Review Questions
    • Multiple Choice Questions
  • Chapter 16 Material Planning Techniques
    • 16.1 Aggregate Planning
      • 16.1.1 Focus of Aggregate Planning
      • 16.1.2 Objectives of Aggregate Planning
      • 16.1.3 Types of Aggregate Planning
      • 16.1.4 Production Variables
      • 16.1.5 Aggregate Planning - Relevant Costs
      • 16.1.6 Aggregate Planning Strategies
      • 16.1.7 Approaches to Aggregate Planning
      • 16.1.8 Intuitive Method
      • 16.1.9 Evaluation of Strategic Alternatives
      • 16.1.10 Economies and Diseconomies of Scale
      • 16.1.11 Definition of ‘Diseconomies of Scale’
    • Review Questions
    • Multiple Choice Questions
    • 16.2 Materials Requirements Planning (MRP)
      • 16.2.1 Simple and Closed Loop MRP
      • 16.2.2 Factors Affecting MRP
      • 16.2.3 MRP: Process
      • 16.2.4 Benefits of MRP
      • 16.2.5 Shortcomings of MRP
    • Review Questions
    • Multiple Choice Questions
    • 16.3 Just In Time (JIT)
      • 16.3.1 Evolution of JIT
      • 16.3.2 Importance of JIT
      • 16.3.3 Steps in JIT’s Development
      • 16.3.4 Keys to Successful JIT Implementation
    • Review Questions
    • Multiple Choice Questions
  • Chapter 17 Inventory
    • 17.1 Inventory: Definition
    • 17.2 Inventory Control
    • 17.3 Functions of Inventory
    • 17.4 Independent Demand vs. Dependent Demand
    • 17.5 Purpose of Inventory
    • 17.6 Classification of Inventory
    • 17.7 Types of Product Inventories
    • 17.8 Types of Service Inventories
    • 17.9 Effect of Inventory Systems
    • 17.10 Inventory Model – Terminologies
    • 17.11 Consumption during Lead – Time
    • 17.12 Correction of Lead Time
    • 17.13 Classification of Inventory Models
    • 17.14 Comparison of P and Q Inventory Systems
    • 17.15 Q-System
    • 17.16 P-System
    • 17.17 Q and P System: A Comparison
    • 17.18 Economic Order Quantity (EOQ)
      • 17.18.1 Procurement Cost
      • 17.18.2 Inventory Carrying Cost (IC Cost)
      • 17.18.3 Stock Out Cost
    • 17.19 Cost Trade – Off
    • 17.20 EOQ Calculation
    • 17.21 Deterministic Inventory Models
    • 17.22 Q-Inventory System
    • 17.23 Gradual Replacement Model (Finite Production Rate)
    • 17.24 Lead Time in Deterministic Models
    • 17.25 Stochastic Inventory Models
    • 17.26 ‘Rol’ Systems of Inventory Control
    • 17.27 Inventory Control Techniques
    • 17.28 VED Analysis
    • 17.29 HML Analysis
    • Review Questions
    • Multiple Choice Questions
  • Chapter 18 Stores Management
    • 18.1 Functions of Stores
    • 18.2 Objectives and Prerequisites of Stores
      • 18.2.1 Objectives of Store-Keeping
    • 18.3 Types of Stores
      • 18.3.1 Centralized Stores
      • 18.3.2 Decentralized Stores
    • 18.4 Effective Stores Management
    • 18.5 Store Accounting Records
    • 18.6 Physical Verification
      • 18.6.1 Stock Verification
      • 18.6.2 Periodic Verification
      • 18.6.3 Continuous Verification
    • 18.7 Materials Management - Objectives
      • 18.7.1 Primary Objectives
      • 18.7.2 Secondary Objectives
    • 18.8 Material Forecasting and Planning
      • 18.8.1 Statistical Forecasting
      • 18.8.2 Non-Statistical Forecasting
    • 18.9 Fixed Order Size and Fixed Order Interval System
      • 18.9.1 How Much to Order: Fixed-Order-Interval Model
    • 18.10 Deterministic, Probabilistic Models and Static Inventory Models
    • 18.11 Spare Parts Management
      • 18.11.1 Criteria for Spare Parts Management
      • 18.11.2 Optimization of Spare Parts
      • 18.11.3 Statistical Tools for Spare Parts Management
    • 18.12 Aggregate Inventory Management
      • 18.12.1 Definition
      • 18.12.2 Objectives
      • 18.12.3 Assessment of Aggregate Inventory Requirements
      • 18.12.4 Measure Historical and Current Inventory Levels and Performance
      • 18.12.5 Establish Performance Metrics
      • 18.12.6 Inventory System Metrics
      • 18.12.7 Tool for Inventory Management
      • 18.12.8 Create an Inventory Build-up Chart
      • 18.12.9 Key Drivers to Control Inventory
    • 18.13 Implementation Aspects of Inventory Systems
      • 18.13.1 Implementation Issues
    • 18.14 Materials Accounting and Budgeting
      • 18.14.1 Materials Budgeting
    • 18.15 Material Management Performance Evaluation
      • 18.15.1 Evaluation Parameters
    • 18.16 Variety Reduction
    • 18.17 Stores Layout, Storage Systems and Equipment
    • 18.18 Material Handling – Operating Strategy
      • 18.18.1 Standardization Aspect
      • 18.18.2 Work Aspect
      • 18.18.3 Ergonomics Aspect
      • 18.18.4 Unit Load Aspect
      • 18.18.5 Space Utilization Aspect
      • 18.18.6 System Aspect
      • 18.18.7 Automation Aspect
      • 18.18.8 Environmental Aspect
      • 18.18.9 Life Cycle Cost Aspect
    • 18.19 Overview of Materials Management Information Systems
      • 18.19.1 Functions of MMIS
      • 18.19.2 Technology Applications
      • 18.19.3 Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)
      • 18.19.4 Mobile Data Entry and Retrieval
      • 18.19.5 Financial System Interfaces
    • Review Questions
    • Multiple Choice Questions
  • Chapter 19 Purchase Management
    • 19.1 Introduction
    • 19.2 Functions of Materials Management
    • 19.3 Principles of Purchasing
    • 19.4 The Purchasing Cycle
    • 19.5 Goals of Purchasing
    • 19.6 Purchase Plan
    • 19.7 Purchasing Functions: Policies, Procedures and Legal Aspects
    • 19.8 Steps in Purchasing
    • 19.9 Purchasing Capital Equipments
    • 19.10 Vendor Rating
    • 19.11 Vendor Evaluation and Rating
    • 19.12 Codification
      • 19.12.1 Kodak System
      • 19.12.2 Advantages of Codification
    • 19.13 Kanban and its Types
      • 19.13.1 Types of Kanban
      • 19.13.2 Kanban: Implementation Pre-requisites
    • 19.14 Bin and Review Systems
    • 19.15 Warehouses
      • 19.15.1 Modern Trends
      • 19.15.2 Cold Storages: Basic Requirements
      • 19.15.3 Importance
      • 19.15.4 Systems
      • 19.15.5 Group of Products: General Category
      • 19.15.6 Location of Warehouse
      • 19.15.7 Advantages
      • 19.15.8 Implementing Automation
      • 19.15.9 Future Trends
    • 19.16 Dynamic Purchasing
      • 19.16.1 Establishment of DPS
    • Review Questions
    • Multiple Choice Questions
  • Chapter 20 Work Study
    • 20.1 Work Study
    • 20.2 Work Study Definition
    • 20.3 Importance and Scope of Work Study
    • 20.4 Significance of Work Study
    • 20.5 Work Study and Productivity
    • 20.6 Work Sampling
      • 20.6.1 Uses of Work Sampling
      • 20.6.2 Characteristics of Work Sampling Study
    • 20.7 Advantages of Work Study
    • 20.8 Techniques of Work Study
    • 20.9 Uses of Work Study
    • 20.10 Definition: Methods Study
    • 20.11 Objectives of Method Study
    • 20.12 Method Study Procedure
    • 20.13 Therbligs
    • 20.14 Process Chart
    • 20.15 Flow Diagram
    • 20.16 String Diagram
    • 20.17 Time Study or Work Measurement
    • 20.18 Objectives of Work Measurement
    • 20.19 Uses of Time Study
    • 20.20 Procedure for Time Study
    • 20.21 Step-by-Step Procedure of Work Measurement
    • 20.22 Principles of Motion Economy & Stop Watch Time
      • 20.22.1 Work Place Principles
      • 20.22.2 Tools and Equipment Principles
    • 20.23 Rating Factor
    • 20.24 Normal Time and Standard Time
    • 20.25 Synthetic Time – Standards
    • 20.26 Allowances
    • 20.27 Micromotion Films
    • 20.28 Memotion Technique
    • 20.29 Usefulness of Time Measurement
    • 20.30 Importance of Rating & Allowance in Time Study
    • 20.31 Pre-Determined Time Standard
      • 20.31.1 Factors to be Considered in using a Predetermined Time System (PTS)
      • 20.31.2 Advantages
    • 20.32 Process Mapping
      • 20.32.1 Objectives
      • 20.32.2 Process Maps
      • 20.32.3 Terms Used in Process Mapping
      • 20.32.4 Steps in Mapping Process
      • 20.32.5 Advantages of Process Maps
    • 20.33 Performance Rating Elements
    • Review Questions
    • Multiple Choice Questions
  • Chapter 21 Network
    • 21.1 Project: Definition
    • 21.2 What is a Project?
    • 21.3 Project Characteristics
    • 21.4 Project Life Cycle
    • 21.5 Problems in Managing a Project
    • 21.6 PM – Basic Questions
    • 21.7 Network Analysis
    • 21.8 PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique)
    • 21.9 CPM (Critical Path Method)
    • 21.10 PERT and CPM: Differences
    • 21.11 When to Use PERT / CPM?
    • 21.12 How does Pert Work?
    • 21.13 Advantages of Pert
    • 21.14 Pert Terminology
    • 21.15 PERT / CPM Assumptions
    • 21.16 Rules of Network Construction
      • 21.16.1 Dummy Activities
    • 21.17 Cpm and its Advantages
    • 21.18 Steps in “Cpm” Technique
    • 21.19 Crashing
    • 21.20 Crashing Procedure
    • 21.21 Illustrations
    • Review Questions
    • Multiple Choice Questions
  • Chapter 22 Quality Management
    • 22.1 Quality
    • 22.2 Quality Characteristics
    • 22.3 Meaning of Quality
    • 22.4 Evolution of Quality Activities
    • 22.5 Inspection and It’s Types
    • 22.6 Interpretation of Control Charts
    • 22.7 Purpose of Inspection
    • 22.8 Control Charts for Variables
    • 22.9 Goods and Services – Characteristics
    • 22.10 Quality Improvement Tools
    • 22.11 Service Quality
    • 22.12 QC Circle
    • 22.13 QC Circle Activities
    • 22.14 QC Circle Operation
    • 22.15 Quality Improvement Schemes
    • 22.16 Sporadic and Chronic Quality Problems
    • 22.17 Breakthrough Sequence
    • 22.18 Quality Policy
    • 22.19 Need for Quality Policies
    • 22.20 Examples of Quality Policy
    • 22.21 International Standard Organisation (Iso)
    • 22.22 Iso Nomenclature
    • 22.23 Structure of ISO 9000
    • 22.24 Structure of Quality Standards
    • 22.25 Quality Assurance
    • 22.26 Total Quality Management
    • 22.27 Fundamentals of TQM
    • Review Questions
    • Multiple Choice Questions
  • Chapter 23 Statistical Quality Control
    • 23.1 Quality Control: Definition
    • 23.2 Objectives of Quality Control
    • 23.3 Statistical Quality Control (SQC)
    • 23.4 Purpose of ‘SQC’
    • 23.5 Advantages of ‘SQC’
    • 23.6 Techniques of Statistical Quality Control
    • 23.7 Variable Basis
    • 23.8 Attribute Basis
    • 23.9 Classification of ‘SQC’
    • 23.10 Normal Distribution
    • 23.11 Control Chart
    • 23.12 Six Sigma
    • 23.13 X and R Chart
    • 23.14 X and R Chart Construction
    • 23.15 P – Chart
    • 23.16 Features of P – Chart
    • 23.17 c – Chart
    • 23.18 Features of the c – Chart
    • 23.19 Acceptance Sampling
    • 23.20 Trade Off
    • 23.21 Operating Characteristics Curve (OC Curve)
    • 23.22 Errors in Sampling Plan
    • 23.23 Concept of Type – I and Type – II Error
    • 23.24 Sampling Plans
    • 23.25 Single Sampling Plan
    • 23.26 Characteristics of Single Sampling Plan
    • 23.27 Double Sampling Plan
    • 23.28 Characteristics of Double Sampling Plan
    • 23.29 Multiple Sampling Plan
    • 23.30 Sampling and Process Control
    • Review Questions
    • Multiple Choice Questions
  • Chapter 24 Maintenance Management
    • 24.1 Objectives of Maintenance
    • 24.2 Elements of Maintenance
    • 24.3 Functions of Maintenance Management
    • 24.4 Types of Maintenance
    • 24.5 Breakdown Time
    • 24.6 Basic Maintenance Decisions
    • 24.7 Corrective Maintenance
    • 24.8 Breakdown Maintenance
    • 24.9 Optimal Crew Size
    • 24.10 Preventive Maintenance
    • 24.11 Advantages of Maintenance
    • 24.12 Requirement for Good Maintenance
    • 24.13 Total Productive Maintenance
    • 24.14 Group Replacement Policy
    • 24.15 Maintenance Records
    • 24.16 Equipment Life Cycle
    • 24.17 Maintenance Alternatives
    • 24.18 Managing Work Environment
    • 24.19 Waste Management
    • 24.20 Automation
    • 24.21 Statistics of Failure
    • 24.22 Industry Safety
    • 24.23 Maintenance Policies
    • Review Questions
    • Multiple Choice Questions
  • References
  • Index
Biographical note
Dean-Faculty of Management Professor of Management & Head Department of Logistics Management Alagappa University Karaikudi & Formerly Management Scientist - C Indian Guided Missiles Programme Defence R&D Laboratory, DRDO
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